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地理学报    2018, Vol. 73 Issue (12): 2392-2408     DOI: 10.11821/dlxb201812009
  城市与区域发展 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
江苏典型县域城乡聚落规模体系的演化路径及驱动机制
李智(),张小林(),李红波,袁源
南京师范大学地理科学学院,南京 210023
Evolution paths and the driving mechanism of the urban-rural scale system at the county level: Taking three counties of Jiangsu province as an example
LI Zhi(),ZHANG Xiaolin(),LI Hongbo,YUAN Yuan
School of Geography Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China
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摘要 

新时代背景下,深入开展县域城乡聚落规模体系研究对促进城乡融合发展、推动乡村振兴战略的实施具有重要的理论意义和实践价值。本文从苏南、苏中、苏北选择张家港市、泰兴市、涟水县3个典型县市作为研究案例地,利用1995年和2015年遥感影像数据和土地利用数据,构建了县域城乡聚落规模体系的评价方法,对县域城乡聚落规模体系的时空演化过程进行了实证分析,发现不同类型县域城乡聚落规模体系的演化路径既有明显差异,也存在一般性路径,而且演化路径具有显著的城镇主导效应和集群分布效应。在深入分析经济发展、城镇化、交通网络、制度与管理4种主要影响因素基础上,进一步提炼出县域城乡聚落规模体系演化的“四轮”驱动机制。研究结果有助于深入认识城乡聚落有机整体的系统观,为推动城乡聚落优化重构提供了新的研究视角和方法支撑。

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李智
张小林
李红波
袁源
关键词 城乡聚落规模体系演化路径驱动机制县域江苏省 
Abstract

In the context of the new era, it is of great theoretical and practical significance to promote urban-rural integrated development and rural revitalization by exploring the evolution paths and the driving mechanism of the urban-rural scale system. In this paper, we examined the evolution paths and the driving mechanism of this system at the county level based on both the land change survey data and remote sensing data in 1995 and 2015, when taking three counties of Jiangsu province as an example, namely developed Zhangjiagang, moderately-developed Taixing, and less-developed Lianshui at different levels of economic development. Based on the empirical study, in this paper, three typical evolution paths of the urban-rural scale system at the county level in Jiangsu province were summarized, and they fell into three types: Developed County, Moderately Developed County, and Less Developed County. In this case, some conclusions can be drawn as follows: (1) the number of settlements in the county decreased, but the total size increased; (2) the total size of rural settlements decreased, and the size of cities and towns increased at different speeds, when the town size gradually exceeded the urban size; (3) the number and the built-up area of high grade settlements increased, while those of low grade settlements decreased; (4) the polarization feature of the county's development became increasingly significant before gradually becoming weak; (5) the characteristics of the spatial cluster concerning the urban-rural scale system became increasingly significant, and the number of hot-points increased in the county area; (6) urban and rural construction land constantly expanded, when Chengguan town and key towns experienced the main change; (7) the spatial pattern of the urban-rural scale system evolved from the single center to double centers, and then to multi-centers. Furthermore, there were two common characteristics, namely urban-dominant effect and clumped-distributive effect, in the developing process of the urban-rural scale system in different counties. Then, based on the analysis of the key influencing factors, in this paper, the driving mechanism of the urban-rural scale system at the county level was put forward. In this study, economic growth, urbanization, transport network, and institutional management stand for four ways to propel progress. They are like the four wheels of a car, reinforcing and depending on one another and forming an integrated whole, in which the urban-rural settlement system constantly evolves.

Key wordsurban-rural scale system    evolution paths    driving mechanism    county level    Jiangsu
收稿日期: 2017-11-24      出版日期: 2018-12-14
基金资助:国家自然科学基金项目(41571164, 41501187)
引用本文:   
李智, 张小林, 李红波等 . 江苏典型县域城乡聚落规模体系的演化路径及驱动机制[J]. 地理学报, 2018, 73(12): 2392-2408.
LI Zhi, ZHANG Xiaolin, LI Hongbo et al . Evolution paths and the driving mechanism of the urban-rural scale system at the county level: Taking three counties of Jiangsu province as an example[J]. Acta Geographica Sinica, 2018, 73(12): 2392-2408.
链接本文:  
http://www.geog.com.cn/CN/10.11821/dlxb201812009      或      http://www.geog.com.cn/CN/Y2018/V73/I12/2392
行政区面积(km2) 乡镇单元(个) 行政村(个) 城镇化率(%) 常住人口
(万人)
户籍人口(万人) 人均GDP(万元) 居民人均可支配收入(万元)
张家港市 987 9 130 69 125.31 92.28 17.80 4.14
泰兴市 1170 15 329 57 107.72 119.53 6.88 2.55
涟水县 1678 19 349 46 84.68 114.97 4.03 1.67
Tab. 1  江苏省3个县市的基本情况
Fig. 1  江苏省3个典型县市的概况
数据名称 时间 研究用途
Landsat TM/ETM+遥感影像 1995年、2015年 获取城乡建设用地图斑
1:1万土地利用变更调查数据库 2009年、2015年 数据校正
1:10万土地利用现状数据库 1995年、2015年 数据校正
Google Earth地图 1995年、2015年 数据校正
江苏省行政区划矢量图 2015年 辅助影像解译
江苏统计年鉴 1996-2016年 获取社会经济统计数据
江苏省土地利用变更调查数据 1996-2015年 获取城乡建设用地面积
Tab. 2  研究数据说明
指标 张家港市 泰兴市 涟水县
1995 2015 1995 2015 1995 2015
基本指标 聚落总个数(个) 1257 813 1605 1387 2206 1954
聚落总规模(km2) 176.92 343.50 254.39 305.86 321.90 363.00
聚落密度(个/km2) 1.59 1.03 1.42 1.23 1.31 1.16
聚落平均面积(km2) 0.14 0.42 0.16 0.22 0.15 0.19
首位度(四指数) 1.23 0.79 1.41 1.32 2.00 3.15
变化统计 数量变化(个) -444 -218 -252
规模变化(km2) 166.58 51.47 41.11
扩展强度指数 0.21 0.05 0.02
Tab. 3  典型县市城乡聚落规模的统计特征
Fig. 2  江苏3个典型县市的城乡聚落位序—规模图
Fig. 3  1995和2015年江苏3个典型县域城—镇—村的规模结构
Fig. 4  1995和2015年江苏3个典型县域城乡聚落规模分级特征
Fig. 5  1995-2015年江苏3个典型县域城乡聚落规模体系的空间聚类变化情况
Fig. 6  1995-2015年江苏3个典型县域城乡聚落用地的空间变化情况
时间维度(规模大小、规模结构) 空间维度(空间聚类、用地空间)
不同点 发达类
型县域
1、首位度降低,齐夫指数提高。
2、村的总规模缩小、城和镇的总规模扩大,但镇的规模大于城。高等级聚落数量和规模显著增加,低等级聚落数量和规模显著减少。
1、城乡聚落用地的热点集聚区面积显著增加,热点中心的空间分布格局向多中心和均衡化方向演化。
2、县城区和镇区用地空间扩张明显,村落平均规模明显增加。
中等发
达类型
县域
1、首位度变化不明显,齐夫指数提高。
2、村的总规模稳定、城和镇的总规模扩大,但镇的规模大于城。中、高级聚落数量和规模增加,低级聚落数量和规模减少。
1、城乡聚落用地的热点集聚区面积明显增加,热点中心的空间分布格局向多中心方向演化。
2、县城区和重点镇区用地空间扩张明显,其他镇区和村落空间变化不明显。
欠发达
类型
县域
1、首位度显著增加,齐夫指数提高。
2、村的总规模稳定、城和镇的总规模扩大,但城的规模大于镇。高级聚落规模增加明显,中低级聚落变化缓慢。
1、城乡聚落用地的热点集聚区面积不断增加,热点中心空间分布格局从单中心向双中心方向演化。
2、县城区用地空间扩张明显,镇区和村落空间变化不明显。
共同点 县域城乡聚落数量减少、用地总规模增加,并且高等级聚落数量及总规模不断增加。城乡聚落规模体系的演化具有城镇主导效应。 县域城乡聚落用地的聚类中心数量不断增加,城镇用地的空间扩张更加显著。城乡聚落规模体系的演化具有集群分布效应。
Tab. 4  不同类型县域城乡聚落规模体系的演化路径
Fig. 7  县域城乡聚落规模体系的“四轮”驱动机制
演化阶段 驱动机制 城乡聚落规模体系特征
经济发展 城镇化 交通网络 制度与管理
低水平 - + - + 城乡聚落规模体系呈单中心分布格局,县城区极化发展特征显著,中心乡镇发育程度较低,村镇密集化分布。
中等水平 + + + + 城乡聚落规模体系的等级化结构特征比较明显,城、镇、村的分化发展态势显著。
高水平 + - + + 城乡聚落规模体系呈多中心分布格局,城镇聚落发育程度较高,中心村发展较快。
Tab. 5  不同演化阶段的主导动力及城乡聚落规模体系特征
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