Spatio-temporal coupling relationship between agricultural labor changes and agricultural economic development at county level in China and its implications for rural revitalization
MA Li1,2(),LONG Hualou1(),ZHANG Yingnan1,2,TU Shuangshuang1,3,GE Dazhuan4
1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China 2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China 3. Key Laboratory of Environment Change and Resources Use in Beibu Gulf, Guangxi Teachers Education University, the Ministry of Education, Nanning 530001, China 4. College of Geography, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, Jiangsu, China
Based on the 1991, 2000 and 2010 panel data at county level in China, this paper analyzes the coupling characteristics and spatio-temporal pattern of agricultural economic development and agricultural labor changes under rapid urbanization by using the quantitative and GIS spatial analysis methods. The results showed that: (1) During 1991-2010, China's agricultural labor at county level showed a decreasing trend, down 4.91% and 15.50%, respectively, from 1991 to 2000 and 2000 to 2010; from the perspective of spatial distribution, the quantity of agricultural labor in China is characterized by the spatial evolution of "decreasing eastward and increasing westward". (2) During 1991-2010, China's agricultural economy at county level showed a sustained growth trend, with a total increase of 140.13%, but the regional differences were obvious. The proportion of agricultural output in the regional GDP gradually decreased and showed the characteristics of decreasing in the eastern region and increasing in the western region. (3) The coupling types of economic-labor elasticity coefficient are mainly the increasing type and intensive type, representing the growth of agricultural economy and labor, respectively; the growth of agricultural economy and the reduction of agricultural labor were observed in the northwest and southeast of China, respectively. The coupling types of "retarded", "fading" and "declining" regions are more in line with the high incidence of poverty in China; from 1991 to 2010, the coupling types presented a positive trend. Finally, based on the coupling types and spatial distribution of economic-labor elasticity coefficient, some policy suggestions are put forward to promote the integration of the primary, secondary and tertiary industries and the revitalization of rural economy.
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Against the backdrop of expanding commercial crop markets and private well expansion, market-oriented agriculture has developed in villages with access to abundant water resources in Tamil Nadu, India. On the other hands, the villages that have failed to secure sufficient irrigation water have experienced sharp decline in cropping. Such land has been rapidly invaded by Prosopis juliflora, a tree species that has wide adaptability of the different environments and high coppicing ability. This species has traditionally been harvested as a fuel for domestic use and small-scale businesses, and recognised as "a tree for the poor". However, since the establishment of the electricity act in 2003, which completely deregulated participation of private companies in the electricity generation industry, the new usage of Prosopis has been created: several small-scale electricity generating plants began to utilise this tree as an energy source. As a result, the demand for Prosopis tree rapidly increased and the real price of raw wood has more than doubled between 2003 and 2009. A census survey of household income revealed that income generated from Prosopis expansion compensated for the decrease of cropping, and contributed to an increase in the net household income, especially for the landless labourers and middle class land holders. This fact indicates that it is possible to reduce poverty in a semi-arid rural area without securing additional irrigation water, in case proper institutions and technologies are in place. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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