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地理学报    2018, Vol. 73 Issue (12): 2345-2363     DOI: 10.11821/dlxb201812006
  城市与区域发展 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
基于高分辨率遥感影像的2000-2015年中国省会城市高精度扩张监测与分析
张翰超1,2,3(),宁晓刚2,王浩2(),邵振峰4
1. 武汉大学遥感信息工程学院,武汉 430072
2. 中国测绘科学研究院,北京100830
3. 城市空间信息工程北京市重点实验室,北京 100038
4. 武汉大学测绘遥感信息工程国家重点实验室,武汉 430079
High accuracy urban expansion monitoring and analysis of China's provincial capitals from 2000 to 2015 based on high-resolution remote sensing imagery
ZHANG Hanchao1,2,3(),NING Xiaogang2,WANG Hao2(),SHAO Zhenfeng4
1. School of Remote Sensing and Information Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
2. Chinese Academy of Surveying and Mapping, Beijing 100830, China
3. Beijing Key Laboratory of Urban Spatial Information Engineering, Beijing 100038, China
4. State Key Laboratory of Information Engineering in Surveying, Mapping and Remote Sensing, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China
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摘要 

21世纪以来,中国城镇化水平迅速提高,城市扩张监测成为地学应用研究的热点,但同时存在着城市区域概念不统一,城市边界提取精度较粗等问题。选取全国31个省会级城市为监测对象,利用高分辨率遥感影像进行统一标准、高精度的扩张监测及分析。基于高分辨率遥感影像数据进行2000年、2005年、2010年、2015年4期城市区域边界提取,与利用中低分辨率影像提取的成果进行比较,并开展城市规模分布和城市扩张分析。结果表明,与其他研究成果相比,本文拥有更高的精度和可靠性;2000-2015年,中国省会城市保持了高速增长趋势,总面积增加了90.15%;省会城市体系接近捷夫模式的等级规模分布;城市扩展情况地区差异显著,东部扩展速度逐步放缓,西部、东北地区加速扩张,中部地区稳步扩张;2010年确定建设的5个国家中心城市(北京、天津、上海、广州、重庆)在2015年城市区域面积位序中排名前5,15年间扩展了82.45%,单个城市年均扩展30.66 km2,其中北京扩展了三成以上,天津、上海扩展了一倍左右,广州扩展了近六成,重庆扩展了两倍以上。本研究成果为中国城镇体系的发展和规划提供了直观准确的数据,对国家全面认知城市扩张状况,掌握城镇建设方针政策实行效果,进行城市体系科学规划具有十分重要的指导意义。

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张翰超
宁晓刚
王浩
邵振峰
关键词 城市扩张高分辨率影像城市区域省会城市位序—规模法则; 
Abstract

China has undergone a rapid urbanization since the beginning of the 21st century. Urban expansion monitoring has become a hotspot in the field of geographical science. However, methods of urban boundary extraction were inconsistent, and the precision of previous urban boundary products is relatively low due to the coarse image resolution. In this paper, a method of high-precision and unified urban expansion monitoring and analysis of China's 31 provincial capitals was carried out based on high-resolution remote sensing images. First, the urban boundaries of 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015 were extracted with a series of unified rules by urban landscape characteristics and geographical knowledge based on high-resolution images. Then, urban boundary result was compared with other urban boundary products based on low and mid-resolution images to assess the accuracy. Finally, urban size distribution and urban expansion were analyzed based on urban area and urban boundary results. Results showed that the proposed method of urban boundary extraction was superior to other researches. From 2000 to 2015, China's provincial capitals witnessed a rapid growth trend, and the total urban area increased by 90.15%; the provincial capitals system approximated size distribution of the rank-size law. Urban expansion had a significant regional difference. Urban expansion rate in the eastern region gradually slowed down, while that in the western and northeastern regions had an accelerating mode, and that in the central region expanded steadily. Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Chongqing, which were designated as the national central cities in 2010, ranked the top five of urban area size in 2015. The five cities increased by 82.45% during the 15 years, and the average annual urban expansion area was 30.66 km2. Urban area of Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Chongqing increased by about 30%, 100%, 100%, 60% and 200%, respectively. This research provides unified and high-precision spatial urban boundaries data and urban expansion results for local governments and the public, which are useful for scientific urban development and planning of China's urban system.

Key wordsurban expansion    high-resolution image    urban area    provincial city    rank-size law
收稿日期: 2017-11-29      出版日期: 2018-12-14
基金资助:国家重点研发计划(2016YFE0205300);国家青年自然科学基金项目(41401513);中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费项目(7771803);城市空间信息工程北京市重点实验室经费资助项目(2018202)
引用本文:   
张翰超, 宁晓刚, 王浩等 . 基于高分辨率遥感影像的2000-2015年中国省会城市高精度扩张监测与分析[J]. 地理学报, 2018, 73(12): 2345-2363.
ZHANG Hanchao, NING Xiaogang, WANG Hao et al . High accuracy urban expansion monitoring and analysis of China's provincial capitals from 2000 to 2015 based on high-resolution remote sensing imagery[J]. Acta Geographica Sinica, 2018, 73(12): 2345-2363.
链接本文:  
http://www.geog.com.cn/CN/10.11821/dlxb201812006      或      http://www.geog.com.cn/CN/Y2018/V73/I12/2345
Fig. 1  中国省会城市分布及四大经济区域划分图
序号 时相 数据类型(分辨率/m)
1 2000年 航空影像(1)、IKONOS (1)
2 2005年 Quickbird (0.61)、航空影像 (1)、IKONOS (1)、SPOT5 (2.5)
3 2010年 Worldview-1 (0.5)、Worldview-2 (0.5)、Quickbird (0.61)、航空影像(1)、SPOT5 (2.5)、ALOS(2.5)、CIRS-P5(2.2)
4 2015年 Worldview-1 (0.5)、Worldview-2 (0.5)、Pleiades (0.5)、航空影像(0.5)、SPOT-6 (1.5)、SPOT-7 (1.5)、天绘一号(2)、ZY-3 (2.1)
覆盖面积占比(%) Worldview-1/2(26.52)、航空影像(22.34)、IKONOS(18.87)、其他(32.37)
Tab. 1  遥感数据情况
Fig. 2  城市区域包含地物示例及与A、B成果示例对比图
Fig. 3  城市区域边界提取流程
Fig. 4  中国省会城市城区提取研究成果比较
城市名称 城市区域面积及位序 扩展速度(km2) 扩展强度(%)
2000年 2005年 2010年 2015年
位序 面积(km2) 位序 面积(km2) 位序 面积(km2) 位序 面积(km2) 2000-2005 2005-2010 2010-2015 2000-2015 2000-2005 2005-2010 2010-2015 2000-2015
北京 1 791.52 2 871.53 2 987.76 3 1033.41 16.00 23.25 9.13 16.13 2.02 2.67 0.92 2.04
上海 2 787.31 1 1078.33 1 1373.48 1 1547.75 58.20 59.03 34.85 50.70 7.39 5.47 2.54 6.44
天津 3 525.01 3 801.50 3 946.53 2 1119.53 55.30 29.01 34.60 39.63 10.53 3.62 3.66 7.55
广州 4 447.51 4 584.83 4 669.59 4 702.70 27.46 16.95 6.62 17.01 6.14 2.90 0.99 3.80
武汉 5 327.36 5 389.37 7 461.01 9 522.54 12.40 14.33 12.31 13.01 3.79 3.68 2.67 3.97
沈阳 6 285.33 6 358.78 8 432.51 8 538.38 14.69 14.75 21.17 16.87 5.15 4.11 4.90 5.91
重庆 7 237.65 7 338.94 5 506.51 5 685.12 20.26 33.52 35.72 29.83 8.52 9.89 7.05 12.55
南京 8 218.21 8 309.11 9 388.59 11 477.01 18.18 15.90 17.68 17.25 8.33 5.14 4.55 7.91
成都 9 206.03 11 261.69 11 342.07 6 621.95 11.13 16.08 55.98 27.73 5.40 6.14 16.36 13.46
乌鲁木齐 10 201.25 14 213.90 13 270.24 12 375.26 2.53 11.27 21.00 11.60 1.26 5.27 7.77 5.76
西安 11 197.28 10 265.56 10 370.13 10 522.03 13.66 20.91 30.38 21.65 6.92 7.88 8.21 10.97
济南 12 196.51 13 217.30 15 237.89 16 267.04 4.16 4.12 5.83 4.70 2.12 1.90 2.45 2.39
杭州 13 194.94 9 299.47 6 497.45 7 563.14 20.91 39.60 13.14 24.55 10.72 13.22 2.64 12.59
长春 14 182.51 12 221.67 12 274.48 13 330.76 7.83 10.56 11.26 9.88 4.29 4.76 4.10 5.42
石家庄 15 180.54 16 193.55 20 197.30 21 209.55 2.60 0.75 2.45 1.93 1.44 0.39 1.24 1.07
太原 16 179.20 15 203.60 17 228.46 18 245.59 4.88 4.97 3.43 4.43 2.72 2.44 1.50 2.47
郑州 17 166.77 18 182.34 14 249.46 15 282.39 3.11 13.42 6.59 7.71 1.87 7.36 2.64 4.62
哈尔滨 18 150.31 17 184.65 16 235.07 14 298.15 6.87 10.08 12.62 9.86 4.57 5.46 5.37 6.56
长沙 19 128.62 20 132.78 21 186.75 22 205.63 0.83 10.79 3.78 5.13 0.65 8.13 2.02 3.99
昆明 20 115.10 21 125.77 19 203.29 19 237.32 2.13 15.50 6.81 8.15 1.85 12.33 3.35 7.08
兰州 21 98.91 23 106.77 26 115.75 26 135.32 1.57 1.80 3.91 2.43 1.59 1.68 3.38 2.45
合肥 22 98.26 19 156.50 18 210.02 17 254.90 11.65 10.70 8.98 10.44 11.85 6.84 4.27 10.63
南宁 23 92.81 24 104.54 22 172.17 20 215.93 2.35 13.53 8.75 8.21 2.53 12.94 5.08 8.84
福州 24 89.91 25 102.32 25 117.20 27 128.79 2.48 2.98 2.32 2.59 2.76 2.91 1.98 2.88
呼和浩特 25 87.02 22 110.73 24 132.98 25 157.93 4.74 4.45 4.99 4.73 5.45 4.02 3.75 5.43
海口 26 75.23 27 82.73 27 102.73 28 114.29 1.50 4.00 2.31 2.60 1.99 4.84 2.25 3.46
南昌 27 74.26 26 90.31 23 144.61 23 191.21 3.21 10.86 9.32 7.80 4.32 12.03 6.44 10.50
贵阳 28 54.47 30 59.10 29 82.99 30 97.86 0.93 4.78 2.97 2.89 1.70 8.08 3.58 5.31
银川 29 49.62 28 70.48 28 102.20 24 164.31 4.17 6.34 12.42 7.65 8.41 9.00 12.15 15.41
西宁 30 41.29 29 59.33 30 76.25 29 104.47 3.61 3.38 5.64 4.21 8.74 5.70 7.40 10.20
拉萨 31 39.43 31 40.24 31 45.61 31 48.04 0.16 1.07 0.49 0.57 0.41 2.67 1.07 1.46
Tab. 2  2000-2015年中国省会城市扩展情况综合情况表
Fig. 5  成果A、B、C的2010年提取结果对比示例——北京、重庆
Fig. 6  2000-2015年中国省会城市体系位序—规模曲线图
Fig. 7  中国省会城市体系Zipf指数、结构容量变化图
Fig. 8  2000-2015年4个时期中国31个省会城市城市区域分布和扩展状况图
Fig. 9  中国省会城市扩展情况区域分布图
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