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地理学报    2018, Vol. 73 Issue (12): 2282-2296     DOI: 10.11821/dlxb201812002
  政治地理与全球海运研究 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
1895-2016年全球海运网络中的海峡两岸港口运输联系变化
王列辉1,2,3(),林羽珊1,2,CesarDUCRUET4
1. 华东师范大学中国现代城市研究中心,上海 200062
2. 华东师范大学城市与区域科学学院,上海 200241
3. 华东师范大学未来城市实验室,上海 200241
4. 法国国家科学研究中心,巴黎 F-75006
Changes of ports' connection across the Taiwan Straits in the global maritime network (1895-2016)
WANG Liehui1,2,3(),LIN Yushan1,2,Cesar DUCRUET4
1. The Center for Modern Chinese City Studies, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
2. School of Urban and Regional Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China
3. Future City Lab, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China
4. French National Center for Scientific Research, UMR 8504 Géographie-cités, Paris F-75006, France;
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摘要 

台湾地区与中国大陆隔海相望,海上运输是两岸间货物往来的最主要方式。受国际政治和贸易模式的影响,从19世纪中后期以来,两岸港口运输联系变化剧烈。利用劳合社(Lloyd's)1895-2016年两岸港口间航线的O-D数据,从国家层面和全球层面研究海峡两岸港口运输联系的变化。主要结论为:① 近代开埠至割让给日本之前,台湾地区与大陆的海运联系紧密,厦门港是台湾地区最重要的中转港;日据之后,台湾地区成为日本的原料来源地和商品销售地,台湾地区—日本—中国大陆形成三角运输联系;两岸对峙后,两岸港口运输联系切断,台湾地区—美国—日本形成三角贸易网络;1979年后,香港港成为两岸运输联系的最重要中转港,两岸直航后,台湾地区与大陆间的港口运输联系在广度和深度上不断拓展。② 台湾地区区位优势明显,但由于是海岛,陆向腹地狭小,因此充分利用区位优势和地缘优势,把区域经济增长中心作为自身的海向腹地,以形成紧密的海上运输联系是台湾地区经济持续发展的关键。改善与中国大陆之间的关系、分享中国大陆发展的机遇、推动海峡两岸的港口运输联系是台湾地区的“天时”与“人和”。

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王列辉
林羽珊
CesarDUCRUET
关键词 港口运输联系海峡两岸海运网络国际政治贸易模式 
Abstract

Taiwan and the Chinese mainland face each other across the sea, and maritime transport is the most important means for the exchange of goods between the two sides of the Taiwan Straits. Affected by international politics and trade patterns, since the middle and late 19th century, the transportation links between the two sides of the Taiwan Straits have changed dramatically. Using the O-D data of vessels transiting between ports from the Lloyd's database between 1895 and 2008, we studied the changes in the transport links between ports on both sides of the Taiwan Straits at the national and global scales. The analysis concludes as follows: (1) Since before the beginning of modern times until Taiwan was ceded to Japan, Taiwan and the Chinese mainland had island-land relations, and Xiamen Port was the most important transit port to Taiwan. After the Japanese occupation, Taiwan became Japan's source of raw materials and a location in which to sell Japan's goods, and Taiwan, Japan, and the Chinese mainland were forming triangular transportation links. After the confrontation between the two sides of the strait, the United States intervened in the Taiwan Straits, and the transportation links between the ports on both sides of the Taiwan Straits were cut off. Taiwan, the United States, and Japan formed a triangular trade network. After 1979, Hong Kong Port became the most important transit port for cross-strait transport links. After direct flights across the Taiwan Straits were instituted, the port transportation links between Taiwan and the Chinese mainland continued to expand in breadth and depth. (2) Taiwan has obvious advantages in location, but because it is an island, the hinterland is narrow. Therefore, making full use of regional and geopolitical advantages, using the regional economic growth centre as its own foreland and forming a close sea transportation link is key to Taiwan's sustained economic development. Improving relations with the mainland, sharing in opportunities for the development of the mainland, and promoting the transport links between the two sides of the Taiwan Straits are opportunities for Taiwan.

Key wordsport links    cross-strait    shipping network    international politics    trade patterns
收稿日期: 2017-11-27      出版日期: 2018-12-14
基金资助:上海市哲学社会科学规划一般课题(2018BCK010);国家社科基金重大项目(16ZDA016);国家自然科学基金项目(41371140);教育部人文社会科学重点研究基地重大项目(17JJD790007);欧洲科学研究委员会项目(313847)
引用本文:   
王列辉, 林羽珊, CesarDUCRUET . 1895-2016年全球海运网络中的海峡两岸港口运输联系变化[J]. 地理学报, 2018, 73(12): 2282-2296.
WANG Liehui, LIN Yushan, Cesar DUCRUET . Changes of ports' connection across the Taiwan Straits in the global maritime network (1895-2016)[J]. Acta Geographica Sinica, 2018, 73(12): 2282-2296.
链接本文:  
http://www.geog.com.cn/CN/10.11821/dlxb201812002      或      http://www.geog.com.cn/CN/Y2018/V73/I12/2282
Fig. 1  两岸港口功能的长时段分析
注:图b两岸对峙时期主要反映的是1951年前的港口功能情况,在此之后两岸处于海运网络中断。
Fig. 2  两岸港口职能演变
注:X轴表示港口的转运功能(介数中心性),正向为强。Y轴表示港口航线数量的多寡(度),正向为多。圆圈的大小与港口的可达性(邻近中心性)强弱成正比,虚线和实线分别表示日据及光复初期到对峙时期、对峙时期到通航时期港口的功能变迁,矢量箭头表征其发展方向,射线长度表征其演化强度,由介数中心性决定。同时,历经百年航线数量均具增长,为了更好地考察港口枢纽地位的转变,所有港口Y轴增量均未图示出来。福州港在日据及光复初期和两岸对峙时期,介数中心性均为0。
年份 1895 1900 1905 1910 1915 1920 1925 1930
HH指数 0.25 0.00 0.50 0.50 0.00 0.00 0.50 0.25
年份 1935 1940 1946 1951 1960 1965 1970 1975
HH指数 0.08 0.28 0.50 0.11 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
年份 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2008 2012 2016
HH指数 0.13 0.07 0.06 0.07 0.16 0.21 0.053 0.047
Tab. 1  基于运输联系的HH指数
Fig. 3  两岸港口运输联系演变
注:图b两岸对峙时期主要反映的是1951年前的海运联系,在此之后两岸处于海运联系中断。
Fig. 4  全球海运网络中的海峡两岸港口地位
Fig. 5  台湾地区对外贸易模式
Fig. 6  1895-2016年基于O-D数据的两岸航运网络空间结构
注:图b两岸对峙时期主要反映的是1951年前的海运联系,在此之后两岸处于海运联系中断。
Fig. 7  1895-2016年台湾地区对外运输联系的国家及地区分布
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[1] 樊杰,赵燕霞,田明,张文忠. 台湾海峡两岸地缘经济整合的 驱动机制与途径[J]. 地理学报, 2003, 58(3): 415-423.
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