地理学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 73 ›› Issue (10): 1942-1953.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201810009

• 产业布局与区域发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国对外建设水电站时空演变过程及影响机制分析

薛德升(),万雅文,杨忍   

  1. 中山大学城市与区域研究中心,广州 510275
  • 收稿日期:2017-07-12 出版日期:2018-10-25 发布日期:2018-10-25
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金国际与地区项目(41320104001);国家自然科学基金项目(41871177);中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金项目(17lgjc04)

Spatial-temporal evolution pattern and mechanism of China's construction of overseas hydropower stations

XUE Desheng(),WAN Yawen,YANG Ren   

  1. Center for Urban and Regional Studies, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
  • Received:2017-07-12 Online:2018-10-25 Published:2018-10-25
  • Supported by:
    International Joint Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41320104001;National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41871177;Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, No.17lgjc04

摘要:

中国对外建设水电站是一种兼具对外援助、对外贸易、对外投资的复合型的对外商务活动。本文分析了长时间尺度下中国对外建设水电站的时空演变过程,结合世界政治经济环境与中国政策的演变揭示了各个阶段的主要特征与影响机制,并对2000年以来中国对外建设水电站所在国家的关键影响因素进行分析。结果表明:① 在全球尺度上,中国对外建设水电站数量、建设形式、空间分布的变化呈现出明显的阶段性特征。② 国家在对外建设水电站的时空演变中起到了核心主导的作用,中国对外建设水电站的时空演变格局经历了国家直接指派(1955-1981年),维护推动(1982-2000年),放权激发(2001-2009年),规划合作(2010年至今)等4个阶段。③ 2000年以来中国对外建设水电站受到中国与东道国的政治与经济外交关系、东道国的贫困人口比例、电力基础设施条件、接受援助金额、工业增长水平和市场基础等因素影响。

关键词: 时空演变, 演变机制, 水电站, 对外建设, 中国

Abstract:

Over the last decades, Chinese enterprises have emerged as the most active builders and investors in worldwide hydropower development. These international economic activities result from China's progressive reforms in both economic and political arenas. Chinese construction of overseas hydropower stations includes foreign aid, foreign trade and foreign investments. This article analyzes the spatial-temporal evolution pattern and mechanism of Chinese-constructed hydropower stations abroad, and reveals the major influencing factors since the year 2000. The major research findings are presented as follows. Firstly, at the global scale, the numbers, ways of construction, and spatial patterns of Chinese-constructed hydropower stations are varied at different stages. Secondly, the state has played a leading role in the construction of Chinese overseas hydropower stations in carrying out its strategy in the past four stages: (a) China directly designated the departments to aiding between 1955 and 1981. (b) The state controlled foreign-aid capital outflows, and encouraged state-owned enterprises to sign contracts with foreign companies, while the projects were supported financially by Western banks from 1982 to 2000. (c) The state has decentralized its power to transgovernmental policy networks and stimulated state-owned enterprises to compete in investment and contracting projects, while the enterprises sought financial support from Chinese banks, such as the Export-Import Bank of China between 2001 and 2009. (d) Based on national initiatives such as the Belt and Road, the state designed a Chinese solution to pursue common prosperity and development and integrated state-owned enterprises to adopt the strategy of associated competition, while the projects began to be supported financially by multilateral institutions promoted by China after 2010. And thirdly, the impact factors on the Chinese-constructed overseas hydropower stations since 2000 are the relations of political and economic diplomacy between China and the host countries, the proportion of the population below the poverty line, the condition of electricity supply, the amount of received aid, the level of industrial growth and market base of the host country.

Key words: spatial-temporal patterns and mechanism, overseas hydropower stations, infrastructure, China