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地理学报    2018, Vol. 73 Issue (9): 1792-1808     DOI: 10.11821/dlxb201809014
  气候变化与生态环境 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
湖南省地形因素对水稻生产的影响
王琛智1,2(),张朝1,2(),张静1,2,陶福禄3,陈一3,丁浒4
1. 北京师范大学地理科学学部,北京 100875
2. 北京师范大学地表过程与资源生态国家重点实验室,北京 100875
3. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
4. 南京师范大学虚拟地理环境教育部重点实验室,南京 210023
The effect of terrain factors on rice production: A case study in Hunan Province
WANG Chenzhi1,2(),ZHANG Zhao1,2(),ZHANG Jing1,2,TAO Fulu3,CHEN Yi3,DING Hu4
1. Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
2. State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resources Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
3. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
4. Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment of Ministry of Education, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China
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摘要 

作为一种人工生态系统,水稻的生产受自然条件和人为管理的共同影响。其中,地形因素不仅决定了水稻生长必须的光热等资源的再分配,而且还影响人类的农业管理活动。以中国水稻主产区中地形较为复杂的湖南省为研究对象,基于多种数据,从生态学的“格局—过程”思想出发,讨论了地形因素对水田分布、水稻生长过程及水稻产量的影响。研究发现,地形因素对水田分布的空间格局影响最为明显,对水稻生长过程影响次之,而对水稻产量影响较弱。在各地形因素中,高程对于水稻生产的影响最为突出。研究结果还反映出地形因素造成了湖南省水田分布和热量分配在北部平原地区的不匹配,政府部门应根据区域特征,因地制宜采取措施,提高该地区水稻生产效益。

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王琛智
张朝
张静
陶福禄
陈一
丁浒
关键词 水稻生产地形因子空间自相关空间格局水稻物候 
Abstract

Rice is the staple food in China and its production is impacted jointly by natural environment and human activities. In this process, terrain condition not only determines the spatial pattern of environmental factors, such as water, heat and radiation, but also affects the agricultural management measures. Although many studies focused on the impact of one or several specific factors on crop production, few studies investigated the direct influence of terrain condition on rice production. Therefore, we selected Hunan Province, one of major rice producing areas in China with complex terrain conditions, as the study area. Based on the remote sensing data and statistical data, we applied the spatial statistical analysis to explore the effects of terrain factors on the rice production from the following three aspects: spatial pattern of paddy field, rice production process and the final yield. We found that: (1) Terrain has a significant impact on the spatial distribution of paddy filed at both regional and county scales. Most paddy fields are located on the northern plain and central hills where the elevation is generally below 300 meters with the slope less than 9° and relief degree less than 140 meters. Also, the spatial pattern of paddy fields in Hunan is sensitive to surface roughness and slope position. (2) Terrain does determine the distribution of temperature, sunlight and soil, and these three environmental factors consequently have direct impact on rice growth. Additionally, several terrain factors (elevation, slope and surface roughness) are related with the phenological stage of double-cropping rice, especially for elevation, which is closely associated with the planting stage for early rice and harvesting stage for late rice. (3) However, compared with the pattern of paddy field and rice production process, the influences of terrain factors on the rice yield are not so evident except for elevation. (4) There is a spatial mismatch between spatial distribution of paddy field and production resources due to terrain factors: although paddy fields are widespread in the northern plain, the yield in this region is lower than that in the hilly area of central Hunan due to limited heat. Our results highly imply that the managers should guide farmers to choose suitable variety and planting system and allocate rice production resources in the northern plain so as to ensure food security.

Key wordsrice production    terrain factors    spatial autocorrelation    spatial pattern    rice phenology
收稿日期: 2017-07-31      出版日期: 2018-09-19
基金资助:国家自然科学基金委员会创新研究群体(41621061);国家自然科学基金项目(31561143003, 41571493)
引用本文:   
王琛智, 张朝, 张静等 . 湖南省地形因素对水稻生产的影响[J]. 地理学报, 2018, 73(9): 1792-1808.
WANG Chenzhi, ZHANG Zhao, ZHANG Jing et al . The effect of terrain factors on rice production: A case study in Hunan Province[J]. Acta Geographica Sinica, 2018, 73(9): 1792-1808.
链接本文:  
http://www.geog.com.cn/CN/10.11821/dlxb201809014      或      http://www.geog.com.cn/CN/Y2018/V73/I9/1792
Fig. 1  湖南省地理位置及其地形特征
Fig. 2  所选县级单元分布和湖南省农气站分布
站点 制度 移栽 分蘖 抽穗 成熟 分蘖—移栽 抽穗—分蘖 成熟—抽穗
常德 早稻 33 52 103 133 15 51 30
晚稻 31 44 86 121 13 42 34
衡阳 早稻 32 44 85 116 12 41 31
晚稻 22 31 75 114 9 44 40
武冈 早稻 28 53 93 112 17 40 29
晚稻 32 42 73 110 11 31 37
Tab. 1  部分湖南农业气象站双季稻物候记录(d)
类型 分类依据
山脊 TPI > 1 SD
上坡 0.5 SD <TPI≤ 1 SD
中坡 -0.5 SD <TPI< 0.5 SD,Slope > 5°
平坡 -0.5 SD <TPI< 0.5 SD,Slope ≤ 5°
下坡 -1 SD <TPI≤ -0.5 SD
山谷 TPI < -1.0 SD
Tab. 2  坡位分类依据
Fig. 3  湖南省主要地形因子提取结果
不同分辨率DEM所提取地面平均坡度(°)
DEM
分辨率(m)
平原 台地 丘陵 山区
湘阴 沅江 长沙 株洲 常宁 永兴 东安 双牌
30 2.14 1.29 5.83 7.35 10.15 11.38 13.85 22.79
50 2.13 1.29 5.83 7.34 10.15 11.37 13.85 22.79
70 2.13 1.29 5.82 7.33 10.16 11.37 13.86 22.79
90 2.09 1.27 5.81 7.33 10.20 11.38 13.83 21.09
110 2.03 1.19 5.76 7.28 10.24 11.39 13.82 18.73
不同分辨率DEM所提取地面平均高程(m)
DEM
分辨率(m)
平原 台地 丘陵 山区
湘阴 沅江 长沙 株洲 常宁 永兴 东安 双牌
30 32.71 29.14 77.52 94.25 195.60 245.63 549.14 389.59
50 32.70 29.14 77.51 94.22 195.01 245.56 549.09 389.76
70 32.70 29.14 77.50 94.13 195.00 245.46 548.91 390.20
90 32.70 29.14 77.52 94.09 194.26 245.46 548.74 390.76
110 32.70 29.14 77.51 94.10 194.24 245.50 548.70 390.53
Tab. 3  不同分辨率DEM对地形因子提取的影响
Fig. 4  湖南省水田的地形因子分布指数
地形因子 高程 坡度 起伏度 粗糙度
水田面积
占比
Pearson相关性 -0.782 -0.85 -0.811 -0.783
P < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01
Tab. 4  地形因子和水田面积占比相关性
水田面积占比 高程 坡度 起伏度 粗糙度
Moran'I 0.67 0.71 0.7 0.67 0.66
Z-Score 10.64 11.27 10.94 10.47 10.39
P < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01
Z-Score 阈值 2.58 2.58 2.58 2.58 2.58
Tab. 5  县级行政单位水田面积比例和地形因子的Moran's I指数与检验
Fig. 5  湖南省各县水田面积占比和地形因素热点区分布图
Fig. 6  湖南省水稻生长环境要素和地形空间分布
早稻各阶段物候期相关系数 高程 坡度 起伏度 粗糙度
移栽 -0.75** -0.10 -0.31 -0.13
分蘖 0.00 -0.69** -0.33 -0.64**
抽穗 0.42 -0.67 0.30 -0.55
成熟 0.45 -0.35 0.43 -0.18
分蘖—移栽 -0.05 -0.38 -0.25 -0.42
抽穗—分蘖 0.43 -0.08 0.58 0.00
成熟—抽穗 0.23 0.37 0.40 0.53
Tab. 6  早稻物候和地形因素相关性
晚稻物候阶段 高程 坡度 起伏度 粗糙度
移栽 -0.15 0.07 -0.16 0.15
分蘖 -0.21 -0.04 -0.19 0.08
抽穗 -0.64** -0.09 -0.54 -0.13
成熟 -0.77** 0.05 -0.37 0.01
分蘖—移栽 -0.21 -0.23 -0.13 -0.10
抽穗—分蘖 -0.67** -0.08 -0.55 -0.25
成熟—抽穗 -0.67** 0.24 0.03 0.22
Tab. 7  晚稻物候和地形因素相关性
高程 坡度 起伏度 粗糙度
水稻单产(kg) Pearson 相关性 -0.584 -0.312 -0.381 -0.382
P < 0.05 > 0.1 < 0.1 < 0.1
Tab. 8  水稻单产和地形因素相关关系
空间自相关分析指标 水稻产量 高程
Moran' I 0.54 0.83
Z-Score 2.27 3.37
P < 0.05 < 0.01
Z-Score 阈值 1.96 2.58
Tab. 9  县级水稻单产数据和高程的Moran's I指数及检验
Fig. 7  湖南省县级水稻产量和高程因素热点区
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