1. Key Laboratory of Geo-information Science of the Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China 2. School of Geographic Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China 3. Department of Geography, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, China
In the context of climate change and urbanization, increase of flood disasters has been a great challenge for Chinese cities and one of the hotspots in natural hazards research. This paper aims to develop a commonly used paradigm for urban flood emergency assessment at city scale. The city center (within outer ring) of Shanghai, China was selected as the study area because it exhibits enhanced consequences of flooding. A simplified hydrodynamic model (FloodMap) that tightly couples a 1D river flow model with a 2D floodplain flow model in urban environment, was used to predict 100-year and 1000-year flood inundation in the current state, the 2030s and the 2050s with relative sea level rise taken into account. Moreover, GIS-based network analysis (service area and closest facility) was employed to evaluate the transportation conditions and emergency responses accessibility of critical public service sectors (Medical Treatment) under normal conditions and multiple flood scenarios. The results show that the performance of the emergency medical services was largely dependent on flood magnitude (extent and depth), traffic conditions (travel speed) and emergency station positioning. In normal conditions, when no flood restrictions are in place, emergency medical services would be able to reach most parts of the study area within 15 minutes even under significant traffic congestion. As inundation would mainly occur within 2-3 km of Huangpu river banks, flood has a limited influence on emergency medical treatment for the entire region of central Shanghai. Even during 1000-year flood scenario in the 2050s, over half (51%) of the area is predicted to be accessible within 15 minutes. Floodwater may directly compromise a number of hospitals, leading to travel delays and obvious disruption of emergency services in riparian areas. This study suggests that the framework developed for coupling flood modeling with urban emergency response assessment, is proved to be effective and practical, and will provide a support to the decision making of urban flood emergency management.
. 基于洪涝情景模拟的城市公共服务灾害应急响应空间可达性评价——以医疗急救为例[J]. 地理学报,
2018, 73(9): 1737-1747.
JING Yameng et al
. Evaluating the impact of fluvial flooding on emergency responses accessibility for a mega-city's public services: A case study of emergency medical service[J]. Acta Geographica Sinica,
2018, 73(9): 1737-1747.
LumbrosoD, StoneK, VinetF.An assessment of flood emergency plans in England and Wales, France and the Netherlands. , 2011, 58(1): 341-363.http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11069-010-9671-x
AbstractThis paper details research carried out in England and Wales, France and the Netherlands on the evaluation of emergency plans for floods. To assess the flood emergency plans, 22 metrics were developed. These metrics covered a range of issues from the aims and objectives of the plan to training and exercises. A number of emergency plans in each of the three countries were reviewed using these metrics, and online surveys of emergency planners were carried out. The objectives of the surveys were to establish what information emergency planners believe is useful to incorporate in emergency plans and at what level of detail. The developed metrics and survey of end-users provided a basis to compare emergency plans. The effectiveness of an emergency plan is difficult to measure, and end-users often stated that this can only be assessed accurately after a plan has been used. Many emergency planners indicated that a well-defined description of the roles, responsibilities and communication is essential for a plan to be effective. These aspects tended to be well covered in the evaluated plans. However, other more technical aspects such as accessibility of roads, evacuation, depiction of the flood hazard and impacts of floods on critical infrastructure can be considerably improved. The main challenge for emergency planners is to avoid filling plans with generic text and to provide an appropriate level of specific detail in the plan whilst ensuring the sability of the plan.
Defra. The National Flood Emergency Framework for England. , 2014.http://www.mendeley.com/research/national-flood-emergency-framework-england/
GreenD, Yu DP, PattisonI, et al.City-scale accessibility of emergency responders operating during flood events. , 2017, 17: 1-16.https://www.nat-hazards-earth-syst-sci.net/17/1/2017/
Emergency responders often have to operate and respond to emergency situations during dynamic weather conditions, including floods. This paper demonstrates a novel method using existing tools and datasets to evaluate emergency responder accessibility during flood events within the city of Leicester, UK. Accessibility was quantified using the 8 and 1062min legislative targets for emergency provision for the ambulance and fire and rescue services respectively under "normal" no-flood conditions, as well as flood scenarios of various magnitudes (1 in 20-year, 1 in 100-year and 1 in 1000-year recurrence intervals), with both surface water and fluvial flood conditions considered. Flood restrictions were processed based on previous hydrodynamic inundation modelling undertaken and inputted into a Network Analysis framework as restrictions for surface water and fluvial flood events. Surface water flooding was shown to cause more disruption to emergency responders operating within the city due to its widespread and spatially distributed footprint when compared to fluvial flood events of comparable magnitude. Fire and rescue 1062min accessibility was shown to decrease from 100, 66.5, 39.8 and 26.262% under the no-flood, 1 in 20-year, 1 in 100-year and 1 in 1000-year surface water flood scenarios respectively. Furthermore, total inaccessibility was shown to increase with flood magnitude from 6.062% under the 1 in 20-year scenario to 31.062% under the 1 in 100-year flood scenario. Additionally, the evolution of emergency service accessibility throughout a surface water flood event is outlined, demonstrating the rapid impact on emergency service accessibility within the first 1562min of the surface water flood event, with a reduction in service coverage and overlap being observed for the ambulance service during a 1 in 100-year flood event. The study provides evidence to guide strategic planning for decision makers prior to and during emergency response to flood events at the city scale. It also provides a readily transferable method for exploring the impacts of natural hazards or disruptions in other cities or regions based on historic, scenario-based events or real-time forecasting, if such data are available.
ColesD, Yu DP, WilbyR, et al.Beyond 'flood hotspots': Modelling emergency service accessibility during flooding in York, UK. , 2017, 546: 419-436.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0022169416308022
YinJ, Yu DP, Yin ZE, et al.Evaluating the impact and risk of pluvial flash flood on intra-urban road network: A case study in the city center of Shanghai, China. , 2016, 537: 138-145.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0022169416301421
Wu XD, Yu DP, ChenZ, et al.An evaluation of the impacts of land surface modification, storm sewer development, and rainfall variation on waterlogging risk in Shanghai. , 2012, 63(2): 305-323.http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11069-012-0153-1
YinJ, Yu DP, Yin ZE, et al.Modelling the anthropogenic impacts on fluvial flood risks in a coastal mega-city: A scenario-based case study in Shanghai, China. , 2015, 136: 144-155.http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0169204614003077
YinJ, Yu DP, Yin ZE, et al.Modelling the combined impacts of sea-level rise and land subsidence on storm tides induced flooding of the Huangpu River in Shanghai, China. , 2013, 119(3): 919-932.http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10584-013-0749-9
Yu DP, Lane SN.Urban fluvial flood modelling using a two-dimensional diffusion wave treatment (Part 2): Development of a sub grid-scale treatment. , 2006, 20(7): 1567-1583.http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/%28ISSN%291099-1085
NYC Mayor'sOffice. NYC Hurricane Sandy after Action: Report and Recommendations to Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg. , 2013.http://hdl.handle.net/10590/3099
This after action report is a high-level summary of recommended improvements to the City’s operations before, during, and immediately following Hurricane Sandy. It was developed by the Mayor’s Office with input from the many City agencies that responded and continue to participate in the City’s recovery from the storm and offers strategic steps the City will take to improve its ability to protect life and property in the face of the increasing risk of severe weather. The report addresses the City’s most immediate needs before, during, and after a severe storm and establishes the City’s priorities for how to prepare for the next severe storm. In many cases, the recommendations in this report are applicable beyond coastal storms and will increase the City’s overall preparedness to respond to catastrophic events.