1. Beijing Key Laboratory for Remote Sensing of Environment and Digital Cities, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China 2. State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China 3. Beijing Engineering Research Center for Global Land Remote Sensing Products, Institute of Remote Sensing Science and Engineering, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China 4. Institute of Remote Sensing Science and Engineering, Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
With the rapid development of urbanization and the continuous loss of the rural labor force, large areas of farmland have been abandoned in some regions of China. Remote sensing technology can indirectly help to detect the size and quantity of abandoned farmland, which is of great significance for the protection of farmland and food security. Using Qingyun and Wudi counties of Shandong Province as the study area, and based on the Landsat data and HJ-1A data, this paper uses the CART decision tree classification method to develop land use maps from 1990 to 2017, set down rules to identify abandoned farmland, and explore the spatial distribution, duration, and reclamation area of abandoned farmland. The results showed that the accuracy of the CART decision tree classification was higher than 85% from 1990 to 2017. The maximum abandoned farmland area was 5503.86 hm2 from 1992 to 2017, and the maximum abandonment rate was 5.37%. The rate of farmland abandonment reached the peak from 1996 to 1998, and the overall trend of abandonment has decreased year by year after 2006. The maximum duration of abandonment was 15 years during the period of 1992 to 2017. Most of the durations were within four years and a few durations were more than ten years. From 1993 to 2017, the maximum reclamation area of abandoned farmland was 2022.3 hm2, and the minimum reclamation area was about 20 hm2. The maximum reclamation rate was 67.44% and the annual average reclamation rate was 31.83%. The results from this paper not only help analyze the driving forces of farmland abandonment in the study area, but also provide references for the identification of abandoned farmland in other areas.
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Farmland abandonment is changing rural landscapes worldwide, but its impacts on biodiversity are still being debated in the scientific literature. While some researchers see it as a threat to biodiversity, others view it as an opportunity for habitat regeneration. We reviewed 276 published studies describing various effects of farmland abandonment on biodiversity and found that a study's geographic region, selected metrics, assessed taxa, and conservation focus significantly affected how those impacts were reported. Countries in Eurasia and the New World reported mainly negative and positive effects of farmland abandonment on biodiversity, respectively. Notably, contrasting impacts were recorded in different agricultural regions of the world that were otherwise similar in land-use and biodiversity characteristics. We showed that the conservation focus (pre- or post-abandonment) in different regions is an important factor influencing how scientists address the abandonment issue, and this may affect how land-use policies are defined in agricultural landscapes.
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This paper reviews current knowledge on changes in carbon stocks upon land use conversion in the Brazilian Cerrado. First, we briefly characterize the savanna ecosystem and summarize the main published data on C stocks under natural conditions. The effects of increased land use pressure in the Cerrado and current uncertainties of estimations of changes in land cover and land use are reviewed next. Thereafter, we focus on soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics due to changes in land use, particularly conversion to pastures and soybean-based cropping systems, and effects of management practices such as soil fertilization, crop rotations and tillage practices. Most studies considered here suggest that more intensive agriculture, which include no-till practices and the implementation of best or recommended management practices (RMP), reduces SOC losses after land use conversion from conventional tillage-based, monocropping systems; however, these studies focussed on the first 0.3 m of soil, or less, and seldom considered full carbon accounting. To better estimate possible global warming mitigation with agriculture in the Cerrado more comprehensive studies are needed that analyse fluxes of the biogenic greenhouse gases (GHG; CO 2, N 2O and CH 4) to determine the net global warming potential (GWP). Follow up studies should include the application of an integrated modelling system, comprised of a Geographic Information System (GIS) linked to dynamic modelling tools, to analyse SOC dynamics and make projections for possible changes in net C flows in the Cerrado region upon defined changes in soil use and management.
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Farmland abandonment restructures rural landscapes in many regions worldwide in response to gradual industrialization and urbanization. In contrast, the political breakdown in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union triggered rapid and widespread farmland abandonment, but the spatial patterns of abandonment and its drivers are not well understood. Our goal was to map post-socialist farmland abandonment in Western Ukraine using Landsat images from 1986 to 2008, and to identify spatial determinants of abandonment using a combination of best-subsets linear regression models and hierarchical partitioning. Our results suggest that farmland abandonment was widespread in the study region, with abandonment rates of up to 56%. In total, 6600 km 2 (30%) of the farmland used during socialism was abandoned after 1991. Topography, soil type, and population variables were the most important predictors to explain substantial spatial variation in abandonment rates. However, many of our a priori hypotheses about the direction of variable influence were rejected. Most importantly, abandonment rates were higher in the plains and lower in marginal areas. The growing importance of subsistence farming in the transition period, as well as off-farm income and remittances likely explain these patterns. The breakdown of socialism appears to have resulted in fundamentally different abandonment patterns in the Western Ukraine, where abandonment was a result of the institutional and economic shock, compared to those in Europe's West, where abandonment resulted from long-term socio-economic transformation such as urbanization and industrialization.
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The drastic socio-economic and political changes that occurred after the breakdown of socialism in Eastern Europe triggered widespread land use change, including cropland abandonment and forest cover changes. Yet the rates and spatial patterns of post-socialist land use change remain largely unclear. We used Landsat TM/ETM+ images to classify land cover maps and assess landscape pattern changes from 1990 to 2005 in Arge County, Southern Romania. Cropland abandonment was the most widespread change (21.1% abandonment rate), likely due to declining returns from farming, tenure insecurity, and demographic developments during transition. Forest cover and forest fragmentation remained remarkably stable during transition, despite widespread ownership transfers. Cropland abandonment provides opportunities for increased carbon sequestration, but threatens cultural landscapes and biodiversity. Continued monitoring is important for assessing whether abandoned croplands will eventually reforest or be put back into production and to better understand the consequences of post-socialist land use change for ecosystems and biodiversity.
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61Mapping active and fallow farmland across Europe using MODIS NDVI time series61Translating land-use information into management intensity and land-use change trajectories61Approach allows various definitions of farmland abandonment and recultivation.61Farmland abandonment continues to be a crucial land change process in Europe.61Recultivation of unused farmland increasingly outweighs farmland abandonment.
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耕地撂荒在国际和国内众多区域都有分布，而且近年来有愈演愈烈的趋势。撂荒地块的提取是进一步研究耕地撂荒状况的基础。该文详细阐述了重庆市典型县的撂荒耕地地块的提取过程，利用2期耕地图层叠加，剔除退耕还林和森林工程图斑，得到撂荒耕地分布图，在此基础上得出了重庆市典型县的耕地撂荒状况。将随机抽样提取的撂荒耕地图斑与 Google Earth影像验证，撂荒耕地图斑提取的正确率达到85.3%，该方法用于提取山区的撂荒耕地是可行的。研究发现，2011年石柱、巫山和酉阳3县的耕地撂荒率分别为14.0%、19.9%和19.2%，整体上3县的平均撂荒率为18.0%，撂荒耕地总面积为5.6万hm2。撂荒耕地以旱地为主，占总撂荒地面积的82.4%，旱地撂荒率为20.4%，水田撂荒率为11.5%。3县中，巫山县和酉阳县的撂荒率高于石柱县；而且，在水田撂荒方面，巫山县和酉阳县的水田撂荒率也明显高于石柱县，3县的水田撂荒率分别为17.2%、13.9%与6.3%。
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SmaliychukA, MüllerD, Prishchepov AV, et al.Recultivation of abandoned agricultural lands in Ukraine: Patterns and drivers. , 2016, 38: 70-81.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0959378016300206
The recent rise in agricultural commodity prices and the expectation that high price will persist have triggered a wave of farmland expansion in regions where land resources are still available. One such region is the former Soviet Union, where the collapse of socialism caused massive agricultural abandonment and where some of these lands are now being brought back into production. Yet, the extent and spatial patterns of recultivation, and what determines these patterns, remains unclear. We examined the extent of recultivation of abandoned agricultural land in Ukraine since 2007 using a new, satellite-based recultivation map and assessed the effect of biophysical and socioeconomic determinants on recultivation patterns using boosted regression trees. We found key predictors of recultivation to be related to the suitability of land for agriculture (i.e., soil quality, temperature). Accessibility to major cities was also important, with most recultivation happening closer to settlements, but this influence varied across Ukraine. Variables related to agricultural management (fertilizer input, mechanization) and demography were negligible in explaining recultivation in our analyses. These factors suggest that recultivation patterns were primarily driven by factors related to land productivity, with recultivation focusing on the most promising areas. Given the remaining large amount of unused agricultural land in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, and considering that much abandonment occurred in areas only marginally suited to agriculture, our findings provide important insights into where recultivation can be expected to happen and thus for assessing the potential socioeconomic and environmental impacts of recultivation.