地理学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 73 ›› Issue (8): 1407-1420.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201808002

• 理论前沿 • 上一篇    下一篇

资本积累驱动下不同尺度地理空间的不平衡发展——史密斯马克思主义空间理论探讨

谢富胜1,2(),巩潇然3()   

  1. 1. 中国人民大学经济学院,北京 100872
    2. 中国特色社会主义经济建设协同创新中心,天津 300071
    3. 上海对外经贸大学马克思主义学院,上海 201620
  • 收稿日期:2017-11-03 出版日期:2018-08-15 发布日期:2018-07-31
  • 基金资助:
    中国人民大学2018年度中央高校建设世界一流大学(学科)和特色发展引导专项资金

Uneven development process of geographical space in distinct scales driven by accumulation of capital: A discussion on Smith's spatial Marxist theory

XIE Fusheng1,2(),GONG Xiaoran3()   

  1. 1. School of Economics, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China
    2. Collaborative Innovation Center for China Economy, Tianjin 300071, China
    3. School of Marxism, Shanghai University of International Business and Economics, Shanghai 201620, China
  • Received:2017-11-03 Online:2018-08-15 Published:2018-07-31
  • Supported by:
    Fund for Building World-class Universities (Disciplines) of Renmin University Of China (2018)

摘要:

尼尔·史密斯是世界知名的人文地理学者和马克思主义地理学家。他在不平衡发展理论的基础上,整合马克思主义和地理学的资本周期运动、空间一体化与尺度推移等范畴,提出了实现平衡发展的途径,极大地丰富和发展了马克思主义地理学,为研究当代社会空间问题提供了更为具体的分析框架和新的理论解释。其理论的核心是把地理空间视为生产资料、社会产物以及空间关系的总和,认为地理空间生产是特定时期资本增殖的重要方式。目前中国学者虽引进其部分理论,但整体了解还比较欠缺。本文将其理论概括和梳理为空间生产、地理尺度、美式帝国主义、绅士化4个方面,分析资本积累驱动下地理空间的不平衡发展过程,深度解析社会、空间与地理的尺度交错与互动关系,阐明资本周期运动、美式帝国扩张和绅士化的逻辑关联,最后以租隙理论为主剖析了城市尺度的资本周期运动。本文旨在为国内学者研究史密斯的马克思主义空间理论以及马克思主义地理学提供纲要和逻辑线索,并为中国城市化转型和经济增长方式转变提供理论参考和方法启示。

关键词: 空间一体化, 资本周期运动, 地理尺度, 租隙, 绅士化

Abstract:

Neil Smith is among the most renowned academics in human geography and Marxist geography. Based upon uneven development theory, Smith has integrated both the categories in Marxist theory and those in geography such as seesaw movement of the capital, spatial integration and scale evolvement to propose an approach to the even development, which has enriched Marxist geography significantly. Smith mainly reckons geographical space as a means of production, a social product and an ensemble of spatial relations. Currently, there is still a lack of overall understanding of Smith's spatial Marxist theory, though introductions to parts of his theoretic tapestry have been made. The paper summarizes Smith's spatial Marxist theory and divides it into four aspects including space production, geographical scale, American imperialism and gentrification. Thus, the paper attempts to analyze the uneven development of geographical space, to interpret the complex interactive relations among society, space and geographical scales, to illustrate the logical connections of capital seesaw movement, American imperialistic expansion and gentrification, and to end with an analysis of seesaw movement of the capital in urban scale via rent gap theory. The paper aims to offer an outline of Marxist spatial theory and geography for domestic academia, as well as theoretical and methodological inspirations for urbanization transition and economic growth in China. Smith's spatial Marxist theory is under several criticisms, to which the paper has discovered justifications. Primarily, Smith focuses on socio-spatial problems under capitalist flexible accumulation regimes, hence the accusation of spatial-temporal limitations to the explanatory power. Besides, remarks on Smith's production determinism are due to the production primacy and the effort to include political and ideological processes via cultural production inspired by Frankfurt school. Additionally, to answer queries about geographical scale, its major difference from other geographical terms is its nature as a social product that translates social divisions into spatial differentiations. Finally, Smith focuses on mediation role regarding urban ground rent to spare controversies on rent categories; hence the comment of neglecting Marxist ground rent theories. Four conclusions and policy suggestions accordingly are as follows. Firstly, high housing price is a form of secondary deprivation of labor and a potential source of social conflict in reproduction process. Long-term effective housing regulation requires public housing provision and rental right improvement. Secondly, multivariate supply of land boosts rental housing construction and meets urban dwelling needs. It may also help lower commercial housing price due to a mitigation of land scarcity. Thirdly, precautions against accumulation by dispossession of real estate developers should be taken in mature urbanized societies. Lastly, rent gap index based on price to rent ratio forecasted by hedonic price model may help stabilize housing market.

Key words: spatial integration, seesaw movement of capital, geographical scale, rent gap, gentrification