地理学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 73 ›› Issue (5): 880-892.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201805008

• 气候变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

黄河小北干流汛期和非汛期冲淤过程模拟

邵文伟(),吴保生(),王彦君,章若茵   

  1. 清华大学水沙科学与水利水电工程国家重点实验室,北京 100084
  • 收稿日期:2017-04-26 出版日期:2018-05-03 发布日期:2018-05-03
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2017YFC0405202);国家自然科学基金重点项目(51639005)

Simulation of sedimentation processes in dry and wet seasons in the Xiaobeiganliu reach of the Yellow River

SHAO Wenwei(),WU Baosheng(),WANG Yanjun,ZHANG Ruoyin   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
  • Received:2017-04-26 Online:2018-05-03 Published:2018-05-03
  • Supported by:
    National Key R&D Program of China, No.2017YFC0405202;Key Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.51639005

摘要:

滞后性是河流系统自动调整的重要特征之一。根据河道演变的滞后响应机制,在考虑上游来水来沙和下游侵蚀基准面(潼关高程)共同影响的基础上,建立了能够模拟河道汛期和非汛期冲淤过程的滞后响应模型,并采用黄河小北干流1960-2015年的冲淤资料进行参数率定(1960-2001年)和模型验证(2002-2015年)。结果表明该模型能较好地模拟小北干流汛期和非汛期的冲淤过程。汛期和非汛期累计冲淤量的模拟效果优于单个冲淤量;累计冲淤量和单个冲淤量的模拟效果汛期要优于非汛期。三门峡水库修建后,1960-2015年间小北干流汛期和非汛期的冲淤过程表现出时段差异。根据建立的滞后响应模型,本文分析了来水来沙和潼关高程对小北干流汛期和非汛期各个特征时段冲淤的贡献率,汛期和非汛期的第一时段(1960-1970年,1960-1968年)主要受到潼关高程的影响,但是后续时段主要受到来水来沙的影响。

关键词: 小北干流, 冲淤, 潼关高程, 滞后响应模型, 汛期和非汛期

Abstract:

Delayed response is one of important characteristics of self-adjustment in fluvial processes. Based on the mechanism of delayed response in fluvial processes, a delayed response model, considering the effects of water-sediment regime and the base level (Tongguan elevation), was developed to simulate the sedimentation processes in wet and dry seasons. The measured data in the period of 1960-2001 was used to estimate the parameters, and the measured data in the period of 2002-2015 was used to validate this model. Results showed that the proposed model could reasonably simulate the sedimentation processes in wet and dry seasons in the Xiaobeiganliu reach. This model performed better for cumulative sediment storage than single sediment storage in wet and dry seasons. Besides, this model also performed better for cumulative and single sediment storage in wet season than in dry season. Since the closure of Sanmenxia Dam, the sedimentation processes in wet and dry seasons in the Xiaobeiganliu has changed obviously in different periods during 1960-2015. Using this model, the contributions of water-sediment regime and the Tongguan elevation on sedimentation in different periods were analyzed. The sedimentation process was mainly affected by the Tongguan elevation in the period of 1960-1970(wet season) and 1960-1968(dry season). However, it was dominated by water- sediment regime after 1970(wet season) and 1968(dry season).

Key words: Xiaobeiganliu reach, silt and scour, Tongguan elevation, delayed response model, wet and dry seasons