地理学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 73 ›› Issue (5): 856-867.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201805006

• 土地利用与生态系统服务 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国天山冰川生态服务功能及价值评估

张正勇1(),何新林1(),刘琳1,李忠勤2,王璞玉2   

  1. 1. 石河子大学,石河子 832000
    2. 中国科学院寒区寒区环境与工程研究所 冰冻圈科学国家重点实验室,兰州 730000
  • 收稿日期:2017-03-28 出版日期:2018-05-03 发布日期:2018-05-03
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41761108, 41461086, 41641003);石河子大学“3152”高层次人才培养支持计划项目(CZ0227)

Ecological service functions and value estimation of glaciers in the Tianshan Mountains, China

ZHANG Zhengyong1(),HE Xinlin1(),LIU Lin1,LI Zhongqin2,WANG Puyu2   

  1. 1. Shihezi University, Shihezi 832000, Xinjiang, China
    2. State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Sciences, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, CAS, Lanzhou 730000, China
  • Received:2017-03-28 Online:2018-05-03 Published:2018-05-03
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41761108, No.41461086,No.41641003;Shihezi University High-level Talents Support Program, No.CZ0227

摘要:

山岳冰川是干旱区生态环境和社会经济可持续发展的物质基础和特色文化基础,具有独特且无法替代的生态服务功能,而目前对冰川调节生态环境和提供人类福祉等方面服务功能和价值估算研究很少。本文基于第一、二次冰川编目数据,分析中国天山冰川面积和冰储量变化特征;梳理并构建山岳冰川生态服务功能体系,结合单位面积服务功能价格法和当量因子法,评估中国天山冰川年生态服务价值。结果显示:① 1970-2010年间,中国天山冰川面积减少1274 km2,退缩了13.9%,年平均冰川储量减少约4.08×109 m3。高海拔区(> 5200 m)冰川面积出现增加,可能是由于该区域降水增加对冰川积累的作用大于气温上升对冰川消融作用造成的。② 中国天山冰川年生态服务价值为602亿元,气候调节、水文调节和淡水资源供给价值分别占总价值的66.4%、21.6%和9.3%,水力发电的年均生态服务价值约为3.5亿元,其他类型的调节和服务功能价值约12.8亿元。③ 比较分析冰川、森林、草地和湿地生态系统不同服务价值所占总价值比例发现,淡水资源供给/实物生产和生态调节功能在生态系统中均占比例较大,冰川单位面积生态服务价值高于其他类生态系统。本文以期能提高冰川对人类福祉和维持生态环境等方面的认知,服务于冰冻圈生态安全、环境保护以及资源的可持续利用规划与管理。

关键词: 山岳冰川, 生态功能, 服务价值, 评估, 中国天山

Abstract:

The mountain glacier which has unique and irreplaceable ecological service function is the material basis and characteristic cultural foundation of the ecological environment and socio-economic sustainable development in arid area. However, there are few studies on estimating service function and value of ice regulating ecological environment and providing human welfare and so on. Based on the data of the first and second glacier catalogs, this research examines variations of glacier area and ice reserves of the Tianshan Mountains in China and constructs the ecosystem service function of mountain glaciers. And this study combines the unit area service function price method and equivalent factor method to evaluate the annual ecological service value of glacier in the research area. The research results are shown as follows: Firstly, in the last 40 years, glacier area decreases by 1274 km2, with the shrinking rate being 13.9%, and the annual average glacial reserve decreases by about 4.08×109 m3. And the increased area in glacier area of the high altitude (> 5200 m) may be due to the fact that the effect of glacier accumulation caused by precipitation enhancement is greater than that of glacier melting caused by temperature rise. Secondly, the annual ecological service value of glaciers in the research area is 60 billion yuan. And the value of climate regulation, hydrology regulation and freshwater resources supply contribute respectively 66.4%, 21.6% and 9.3% of the total value, and the average annual ecological service value of hydroelectric power is about 350 million yuan. Other regulation and the service function value is about 1.3 billion yuan. Finally, this study finds that supply of fresh water resources, physical production and the ecological regulating function account for the absolute contribution in the ecological system, through the comparative analysis of ice, forest, grassland and wetland ecosystem service value of different proportions of the total value, and the ecological service value of the glacier unit area is higher than those of other kinds of ecosystems. Therefore the purpose of the research is to improve the understanding of human beings on impact of glacier about the human welfare, the maintenance of ecological environment and other aspects, and provide a basis for policy making in cryosphere ecological security, environmental protection and sustainable use of resources for planning and management.

Key words: mountain glacier, ecological function, service value, evaluation, Tianshan Mountains