Spatial optimization is an important research area in geography. Most research on spatial optimization of education resource in this field is concerned with spatial efficiency, while the public is more concerned with spatial equity. In recent years, random allocation has been tested in some places, but the optimization models on the random allocation of schools have not been well formulated and developed. In China, to improve the spatial equity of education, a newly proposed reform tries to use lottery for school admission, namely "allocating several schools to one school district". However, there is little literature on how to implement the new school allocation, its impacts on school distance and educational equity. This paper constructs a quadratic programming model to minimize the variance of all students' expected values on educational quality under constraints of the maximum distance and schools' capacities. Then, Shijingshan District in Beijing is taken as a case area. The result indicates that the new allocation model can significantly improve the spatial equity of educational resources compared with the way of allocating students to the nearby school. The variance of the former decreases by 99%. Over 2/3 of the communities benefit from our model of maximum spatial equality, whose expected values of educational quality will increase. The ratio of benefit students is also about 2/3. On the other hand, the distance cost of school commuting is also significant. The average school distance increases by 3.99 times. However, it is still less than 5 km, which is commonly set as maximum distance to school. Moreover, it is also less than the survey school distance in the study area. When the parameter of the maximum distance in the model increases from 5 km to 8 km, the improvement of the variance of expected value of educational quality obeys the law of exponential growth, and the average distance increase obeys the law of arithmetic growth. When it is set at 7 km, the variance of expected value of educational quality approaches zero. It can be regarded as a state of absolute equal opportunity for every student which is usually thought to be hard or impossible to realize. Based on the results, the policy implication for China's school admission system is discussed.
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KongYunfeng, LiXiaojian, ZhangXuefeng.Analysis of spatial accessibility for school redistricting in rural China: A case study of the secondary schools in Gongyi City, Henan Province. , 2008, 12(5): 800-809.
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In this paper we examine the role which distance, in a variety of forms, can play in the reproduction, intensification or reduction of educational inequality in different types of school systems in different countries. This is a very broad issue, and in the paper we examine the ways in which distance to school has emerged as an important factor in understanding the relationship between social and educational inequality in London. We begin by outlining a broad framework for examination of the importance of space and distance which looks at characteristics of schools, pupils and school allocational systems and how they combine in different situations. We then attempt to populate this schema by drawing on different specific examples linking to relevant national literatures.
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ZhangJunyou.The limitations of the nearby enrollment and the exploration of the university district system., 2016(2): 32-36.
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WuQ, ZhangX, WaleyP.Jiaoyufication: When gentrification goes to school in the Chinese inner city. , 2015, 53(16): 3510-3526.http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=5721363
Gentrification, or the class-based restructuring of cities, is a process that has accrued a considerable historical depth and a wide geographical compass. But despite the existence of what is otherwise an increasingly rich literature, little has been written about connections between schools and the middle class makeover of inner city districts. This paper addresses that lacuna. It does so in the specific context of the search by well-off middle class parents for places for their children in leading state schools in the inner city of Nanjing, one of China鈥檚 largest urban centres, and it examines a process that we call here jiaoyufication. Jiaoyufication involves the purchase of an apartment in the catchment zone of a leading elementary school at an inflated price. Gentrifying parents generally spend nine years (covering the period of elementary and junior middle schooling) in their apartment before selling it on to a new gentrifying family at a virtually guaranteed good price without even any need for refurbishment. Jiaoyufication is made possible as a result of the commodification of housing alongside the increasingly strict application of a catchment zone policy for school enrolment. We show in this paper how jiaoyufication has led to the displacement of an earlier generation of mainly working class residents. We argue that the result has been a shift from an education system based on hierarchy and connections to one based on territory and wealth, but at the same time a strangely atypical sclerosis in the physical structure of inner city neighbourhoods. We see this as a variant form of gentrification.
AllenR, BurgessS, McKenna L. The short-run impact of using lotteries for school admissions: Early results from Brighton and Hove’s reforms. , 2013, 38(1): 149-166.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1475-5661.2012.00511.x/full
Abstract We analyse the initial impact of a major school admission reform in Brighton and Hove. The new system incorporated a lottery for oversubscribed places and new catchment areas. We examine the post-reform changes in school composition. We locate the major winners and losers in terms of the quality of school attended. We match similar cities and conduct a difference-in-difference analysis of the policy change. The results are complex: we see an increase in student sorting but we also see a significant weakening of the dependence of school attended on student’s prior attainment.
General Office of Ministry of Education. Notice on the work of urban compulsory education enrollment in 2016. , 2016-02-19.Ministry of Education.http://www.jyb.cn/info/jyzck/201602/t20160219_652318.html
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TongD, Murray AT.Spatial optimization in geography. , 2012, 102(6): 1290-1309.http://www.jstor.org/stable/41805898
This article discusses spatial optimization in geography, focusing on contributions of geographers in explicit geographical contexts. An overview of spatial optimization is given, as well as illustrative examples. Many of the individuals contributing to this area of the discipline are identified, demonstrating the breadth of academic institutions spanning the globe where spatial optimization is represented in the research and curriculum of geographers. The article provides a characterization of what a spatial optimization problem is, but also properties, relationships, and challenges behind this. The ultimate purpose of this article is to highlight the spatial optimization subspecialty within geography and in doing so, highlight the need for continued spatial model development and application in the discipline. Further, there is also a need for research focused on techniques to solve spatial optimization problems, particularly in the context of geographic information systems.
This paper aims to develop an optimal location-allocation methodology for school site selection using GIS and integer programming. According to the nearby enrollment policy, the authors propose two linear programming models (boolean and integer) with constrains of total school number and school capacity. The models are simplified by eliminating the unreasonable school-residence links for reducing the number of decision variables and therefore solving the problems efficiently. Since the constraint matrix of the boolean model is a sparse matrix with two non-zero elements per row, it can be solved optimally with very small tolerance using branch and cut algorithm. The constraint matrix of the integer model is similar to the totally unimodualr matrix and can be solved optimally. In ArcGIS 10 geoprocessing framework, the school site-selection tool is designed by integrating ArcGIS network analysis, Coin-or linear programming modeler (PuLP) and linear programming solver Cplex 12. School site selection of a county region with 1276 resident points and 50 schools is tested successfully. The related network analysis, model building, model solving and result visualization can be implemented speedily in normal personal computer with Intel Dual-Core 2.44GHz CPU and 2GB memory. Case study shows that the mathematical models and solution method introduced in this paper are efficient, easy-to-use and practical for large-scale school location-allocation problems. The authors also argue that instead of using heuristic algorithms, many large-size location-allocation problems can be solved using branch and cut algorithm optimally or optimally with very small tolerance.
DaiTeqi, WangLiang, Zhang Yuchao, et.al. Optimizing school distribution with constraints of school size after school consolidation in rural China: A case study of Yanqing District, Beijing City. , 2016, 35(11):1352-1359.
TeixeiraJ, AntunesA, PeetersD.An optimization-based study on the redeployment of a secondary school network. , 2007, 34(2): 296-315.http://www.researchgate.net/publication/23541594_An_optimization-based_study_on_the_redeployment_of_a_secondary_school_network
Abstract In this paper we report the results of a study on secondary school planning made within the framework of Coimbra鈥檚 Educational Charter. Coimbra is a medium-sized municipality of 320 km2 and 150 000 inhabitants located in the center-littoral region of Portugal. The planning problem addressed in the study consisted of defining the location, type, and size of the schools that should integrate Coimbra鈥檚 secondary school network in 2015, given, first, the excess of aggregate school capacity that currently characterizes the municipality, and, second, the change in school typology that needs to be implemented as a consequence of a recent reorganization of the Portuguese educational system. This problem was analyzed with a discrete facility-location model and considers decisions both of closing existing schools and of opening new schools. The model is a variant of the well-known p -median model, which aims at maximizing the accessibility of students to schools, with constraints on maximum and minimum capacity occupation that make model solutions lose the single assignment and closest assignment properties. As these are desirable properties in a public-facility planning context, they are enforced with explicit constraints. The results obtained through the model are discussed from the standpoint of the trade-off between school accessibility improvements and school network changes.
WangF, TangQ.Planning toward equal accessibility to services: A quadratic programming approach. , 2013, 40(2): 195-212.http://www.researchgate.net/publication/269826240_Planning_toward_equal_accessibility_to_services_a_quadratic_programming_approach
In the literature various accessibility indices have been developed to assess the relative ease by which the locations of services (supply) can be reached from a residential (demand) location. In this paper we address the planning problem: how the resources can be redistributed to achieve the highest equality of accessibility to the service providers. In particular, a quadratic programming approach is used to minimize the variance of accessibility scores across demand locations by readjusting the amounts of service supplies. Two case studies-job access in Columbus, OH and primary healthcare access in Chicago, IL-are used to illustrate the method. The result suggests that in order to achieve better equality of accessibility, peripheral areas, in general, need additional supplies to compensate for their less-central locations, and some central city areas also need to add supplies to accommodate high demands by the high population density there.
TaoZ, ChengY, DaiT.Spatial optimization of residential care facility locations in Beijing, China: maximum equity in accessibility. , 2014, 13(1): 1-11.http://ij-healthgeographics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1476-072X-13-33
Background The residential care system is rapidly developing and plays an increasingly important role in care for the elderly in Beijing. A noticeable disparity in the accessibility to existing residential care facilities, however, is demonstrated in existing studies. The spatial optimization of residential care facility (RCF) locations is urgently needed to promote equal access to residential care resources among the elderly population. Methods A two-step floating catchment area method with an additional distance-decay function is adopted to measure accessibility to residential care facilities. The spatial optimization model is developed to maximize equity in accessibility by minimizing the total square difference between the accessibility score of each demand location and the weighted average accessibility score. The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method is implemented for the solution. Results The optimized RCF layouts improve equal spatial access to residential care resources with very low accessibility standard variation (0.0066). A relatively large number of beds (51% of the total beds) to be located in the suburban districts between the central and periphery districts of Beijing are optimized. A smaller number of beds to be located in the central and periphery districts (33% and 16% respectively) are optimized. The gaps between the existing and optimized layouts suggest that more RCF beds (5961 beds) are needed in suburban districts, while the RCF beds in some subdistricts located in the central and periphery districts are oversupplied (5253 and 1584 surplus beds respectively). Conclusions The optimized results correspond to the municipal special plan proposed by the Beijing government. The optimization objective of this study is different from traditional facility location optimization models, and the method is efficient in maximizing equal access to residential care facilities. This method can support knowledge-based policy-making and planning of residential care facilities.
LiX, WangF, YiH.A two-step approach to planning new facilities towards equal accessibility. , 2016, 1-18.http://www.researchgate.net/publication/304613524_A_two-step_approach_to_planning_new_facilities_towards_equal_accessibility
Abstract A recent advancement in location-allocation modeling proposes a new objective of minimizing inequality of accessibility. Existing work considers the planning problem as either selecting new sites or adjusting facility capacities, separately. This paper develops a two-step hybrid approach to the problem by optimizing both locations and capacities of facilities towards equal accessibility. A genetic algorithm is first employed to find the best locations to site new facilities, and then a quadratic programming method is used to determine the best capacity of each facility within a pre-defined range. The sequence is consistent with many decision-making practices. Results of a series of experiments demonstrate that location optimization reduces inequality in accessibility more significantly than capacity optimization. The two-step optimization method can be applied for sequential allocation decision-makings towards maximum equal accessibility.
WangF.Measurement, optimization, and impact of health care accessibility: A methodological review. , 2012, 102(5): 1104-1112.http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC3547595/
Despite spending more than any other nation on medical care per person, the United States ranks behind other industrialized nations in key health performance measures. A main cause is the deep disparities in access to care and health outcomes. Federal programs such as the designations of Medically Underserved Areas/Populations and Health Professional Shortage Areas are designed to boost the number of health professionals serving these areas and to help alleviate the access problem. Their effectiveness relies first and foremost on an accurate measure of accessibility so that resources can be allocated to truly needy areas. Various measures of accessibility need to be integrated into one framework for comparison and evaluation. Optimization methods can be used to improve the distribution and supply of health care providers to maximize service coverage, minimize travel needs of patients, limit the number of facilities, and maximize health or access equality. Inequality in health care access comes at a personal and societal price, evidenced in disparities in health outcomes, including late-stage cancer diagnosis. This review surveys recent literature on the three named issues with emphasis on methodological advancements and implications for public policy.
Marsh MT, Schilling DA.Equity measurement in facility location analysis: A review and framework. , 1994, 74(1): 1-17.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0377221794902003
ABSTRACT In selecting sites for facilities, especially in the public sector, the issue of equity is becoming increasingly important. Beginning with the work of Mumphreys et al. (1971), McAllister (1976), and Savas (1978), a substantial literature has developed that incorporates equity in facility siting decision models. Despite this level of interest, however, there has been little agreement in these models as to how equity should be measured. Further, except for some recent works, there has generally been little comparison of alternative measures, or assesment of their relative value, let alone any consensus on the best measure(s) to use. Perhaps even more surprising is the great number and variety of measures employed. The motivation for this paper is to address these problems and provide for researchers a base from which issues of equity can be included in facility siting models. More specifically, we seek to review the equity literature as it pertains to facility location, assemble the set of measures that have been developed, and introduce a framework and common notation for organizing them. We also will discuss approaches that can be used to select an appropriate measure of equity.
MalczewskiJ, JacksonM.Multicriteria spatial allocation of educational resources: An overview. Socio-, 2000, 34(3): 219-235.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0038012199000257
The multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem involves a set of alternative allocation plans evaluated on the basis of multiple, conflicting and noncommensurate criteria by several interest groups. These are often characterized by unique preferences with respect to the relative importances of criteria against which the alternative plans are evaluated. It is argued that central to many spatial (geographical) decision making problems in the public sector is the search for consensus among various interest parties. We suggest that multicriteria decision analysis may be used successfully to develop alternative allocation plans in facilitating compromise among competing interests. In this regard, a variety of normative approaches developed over the past 20 years, together with an increasing interest in GIS (Geographic Information Systems)-based analysis, will likely lead to greater emphasis on interactive search procedures and interactive computer-based decision support system concepts.
Goeverden C DV, Boer ED. School travel behaviour in the Netherlands and Flanders. , 2013, 26(1): 73-84.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0967070X13000073
Studies on school travelling frequently deal with active travelling that is considered important in preventing obesity. Most research has been done in low bicycle countries where walking is the main active mode. The paper presents an analysis for the Netherlands and Flanders, two European countries with high bicycle use. The study analyses two aspects of school travel behaviour: home-to-school distances and modal choice. Both are analysed for primary and secondary school students. A descriptive analysis learns that in Flanders trip lengths to primary schools are significantly larger than in the Netherlands and that the bicycle is more frequently used in the Netherlands. Analyses of influencing variables for both home-to-school distance and modal choice demonstrate that 鈥榟ard鈥 factors that define the objective conditions for school choice (crucial for home-to-school distance) and modal choice are most influential. They regard the locations of eligible schools and the qualities of the eligible modes. Just one other factor is significant in the explanation of home-to-school distances: car ownership. On the other hand, modal choice is influenced by several other socio-cultural factors, where age of the pupil, size of the household, and car ownership are most important. Most outcomes are in line with other studies. The observed high bicycle use demonstrates that the bicycle has the potential to account for a large number of trips and can even be the dominant mode in school travelling.
BurgessS, GreavesE, VignolesA, et al.Parental choice of primary school in England: What types of school do different types of family really have available to them? , 2011, 32(5): 531-547.年度引用
This article focuses on the constraints on parental choice of school caused by geographical location, which arise due to the reliance on geographical proximity as the key oversubscription criterion for allocating school places. We investigate the assumption that most families really can choose between a range of different schools, and ask what types of school are genuinely accessible to different types of pupil. Using an innovative combination of survey and administrative data, we first determine what types of school are located near different family types. We then investigate how many of these different types of school are really available to the student, based on current catchment areas of schools and the home location of the child. This enables us to assess how access is determined by geography, and how it differs both by school type and by type of family. We show that using proximity as the main criterion to determine access to most schools affects pupils' probability of securing a place at a particular school, with higher socio-economic status (SES) pupils being more likely to be accepted into (nearer) more advantaged schools. We argue that the large differences in the range of schools genuinely available to different families, coupled with the use of proximity as a tie-break device, continues to be a significant barrier to reducing inequality of access in the English school system.