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地理学报    2017, Vol. 72 Issue (8): 1432-1443     DOI: 10.11821/dlxb201708008
  城市研究 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
武汉市城市空间集聚要素的分布特征与模式
焦利民1,2(),李泽慧1,2,许刚1,2,张博恩1,2,董婷1,2,谷岩岩3
1. 武汉大学资源与环境科学学院,武汉 430079
2. 武汉大学地理信息系统教育部重点实验室,武汉 430079
3. 武汉大学测绘遥感信息工程国家重点实验室,武汉 430079
The characteristics and patterns of spatially aggregated elements in urban areas of Wuhan
JIAO Limin1,2(),LI Zehui1,2,XU Gang1,2,ZHANG Boen1,2,DONG Ting1,2,GU Yanyan3
1. School of Resource and Environmental Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China
2. Key Laboratory of Geographic Information System, Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China
3. State Key Laboratory of Information Engineering in Surveying Mapping and Remote Sensing, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China
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摘要 

不同城市要素的集聚现象具有不同的空间模式,定量化研究城市要素集聚模式的差异和联系对于理解城市发展机理、合理制定城市规划具有重要意义。本文以武汉市为例,获取不透水表面、商业服务业网点(POI)、人口、容积率、城市道路等城市要素数据;采用核密度估计法识别城市主次中心,从城市要素的分布形态、集聚程度、集聚模式等来研究城市要素的空间分布格局特征。研究发现,武汉市呈现“一主七副”的多中心结构,各城市要素从城市中心向外呈反S型的圈层递减。采用集聚度指数衡量城市要素的集聚水平,结果显示商业POI、人口密度的集聚程度最大,其次是容积率、道路密度、不透水表面占比。高度集聚的商业POI、人口密度呈现出点状模式与带状模式相结合的分布模式,中度集聚的道路密度、容积率呈现点状模式、环状模式与轴状模式相结合的分布模式,低度集聚的不透水表面密度主要表现为环状模式。城市中心的吸引、立体空间开发等促进了城市要素的向心集聚,交通干线、稀缺景观资源的廊道效应等重塑了城市要素的空间分布形态。

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焦利民
李泽慧
许刚
张博恩
董婷
谷岩岩
关键词 城市要素空间集聚核密度估计梯度分析反S方程武汉市 
Abstract

Different urban elements may exhibit various aggregation patterns. It is of great significance to quantitatively investigate the disparity and connection among various aggregation patterns of urban elements for understanding the mechanism of urban development and supporting urban planning. Taking Wuhan city, Central China, as a case, we collected five types of urban elements, namely, impervious surface, population density, Point of Interest (POI), plot ratio, and road network, to explore their spatial distribution and characteristics of aggregation patterns. We first used Kernel Density Estimation (KDE) method to identify city centers and we found that there is one major center and seven sub-centers in Wuhan. Then we partitioned the study area by gradient analysis, and calculated the densities of urban elements. The density of urban element decreases outward from the centers, which is fitted well using "Inverse S-shaped" function. We used Concentration Degree Index (CDI) to reflect the aggregation degree of urban elements. The results indicate that the degrees of the aggregation of urban elements are: Commercial POI > population > plot ratio > road. Commercial POI and population are highly aggregated in the urban core area, while plot ratio and road are moderately aggregated in the urban core area. The spatial patterns of highly aggregated commercial POI and population are the combination of point pattern and zonal pattern, while the spatial patterns of moderately aggregated road network and plot ratio are the combination of point pattern, ring pattern and axial pattern. As for the lowly aggregated impervious surface, it shows a ring pattern. The attraction effect of city centers and vertical development promote the center-oriented agglomeration of urban elements. At the same time, the transportation lines and corridor effects of the scarce landscape resources reshape the spatial distribution pattern of urban elements.

Key wordsurban elements    spatial agglomeration    kernel density estimation    gradient analysis    inverse S-shaped function    Wuhan city
收稿日期: 2016-08-30      出版日期: 2017-08-23
基金资助:国家自然科学基金项目(41571385)
引用本文:   
焦利民, 李泽慧, 许刚等 . 武汉市城市空间集聚要素的分布特征与模式[J]. 地理学报, 2017, 72(8): 1432-1443.
JIAO Limin, LI Zehui, XU Gang et al . The characteristics and patterns of spatially aggregated elements in urban areas of Wuhan[J]. Acta Geographica Sinica, 2017, 72(8): 1432-1443.
链接本文:  
http://www.geog.com.cn/CN/10.11821/dlxb201708008      或      http://www.geog.com.cn/CN/Y2017/V72/I8/1432
ID 大类 子类 比例(%)
1 居住用地 商务住宅相关,商务住宅住宅区 6.74
2 公共用地 生活服务(人才市场),政府机构及社会团体,体育休闲,科教文化服务,医疗保健(商业服务业设施用地之外部分)、公共设施 10.06
3 商业服务业设施用地 餐饮服务,公司企业(公司),购物服务,金融保险,汽车维修、汽车服务,汽车销售,生活服务,住宿服务,商务住宅(楼宇)、体育休闲(度假村、高尔夫、休闲场所、娱乐场所、溜冰场、赛马场)、科教文化服务(传媒机构、驾校、培训机构、科教文化场所中有部分数据)、医疗保健服务(宠物诊所、诊所) 78.26
4 工业用地 公司企业(工厂),公司企业(冶金),公司企业(矿工),商务住宅(产业园) 0.53
5 交通用地 道路附属设施,交通服务设施 3.83
6 绿地与广场用地 风景名胜用地 0.57
Tab. 1  POI数据类型划分
Fig. 1  武汉市圈层区域划分
Fig. 2  武汉市POI核密度分析结果与多级城市中心
Fig. 3  武汉市城市圈层划分过程
要素类型 α c D R2
不透水表面 3.92 0.0191 30.29 0.9847
人口密度 2.965 0.04039 6.306 0.9689
商业POI 2.5 0.0211 5.074 0.9371
容积率 2.138 0.1213 8.827 0.9322
道路密度 0.8025 0.07271 8.956 0.8292
Tab. 2  武汉市城市要素反S方程拟合参数表
Fig. 4  武汉市城市要素反S方程拟合曲线图
要素类型 CDI 集聚程度 集聚区域
商业POI 0.17 高度集聚 核心区
人口密度 0.21 高度集聚 核心区
容积率 0.29 中度集聚 核心区
道路密度 0.30 中度集聚 核心区
不透水表面 1 低度集聚
Tab. 3  武汉市城市要素集聚程度
Fig. 5  武汉市5个城市要素的空间分布
Fig. 6  武汉市不同城市要素密度曲线、空间集聚度与模式
商业POI 人口密度 容积率 道路密度 不透水表面密度
集聚程度 高度集聚 高度集聚 中度集聚 中度集聚 低度集聚
集聚模式 点状+带状 点状 点状+轴状+环状 环状 环状
中心指向性 极高 较高
Tab. 4  武汉市不同城市要素空间集聚度与模式
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