地理学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 72 ›› Issue (7): 1290-1304.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201707013

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中国“三生空间”分类评价与时空格局分析

刘继来1, 刘彦随1,2(), 李裕瑞2,3   

  1. 1. 北京师范大学地理科学学部,北京 100875
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    3. 中国科学院精准扶贫评估研究中心,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2016-10-22 修回日期:2017-03-13 出版日期:2017-08-07 发布日期:2017-08-08
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:刘继来(1984-), 男, 湖北武汉人, 博士生, 主要从事土地资源与城乡发展研究。E-mail: jlliu@mail.bnu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41130748, 41471143)国家社会科学基金重大项目(15ZDA021);National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41130748, No.41471143 Key Project of National Social Science Foundation of China, No.15ZDA021

Classification evaluation and spatial-temporal analysis of "production-living-ecological" spaces in China

Jilai LIU1, Yansui LIU1,2(), Yurui LI2,3   

  1. 1. Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing100101, China
    3. Center for Assessment and Research on Targeted Poverty Alleviation, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2016-10-22 Revised:2017-03-13 Online:2017-08-07 Published:2017-08-08

摘要:

本文在探究“生产—生活—生态”三生空间理论内涵的基础上,分析了土地利用功能与土地利用类型的辩证关系,依据土地利用现状分类国家标准,建立了三生空间分类与评价体系,揭示了1990-2010年间中国三生空间的格局及其变化特征。结果表明:① 生产空间主要分布在胡焕庸线东南侧的主要城市群及粮食主产区,其扩张区域主要分布于东北平原、新疆西北、宁夏、兰州—西宁、四川盆地、环渤海、长三角、厦漳泉、珠三角等地区,缩小区域主要分布在黄土高原、呼伦贝尔大草原、江汉平原、闽南丘陵等地区;② 生活空间主要集中在全国主要城市及城市群,整体上呈现“东高西低、北高南低;大分散、小集聚”的空间格局,其扩张过程表现为环渤海、长三角、珠三角三大城市群的大规模、区域式扩张和各主要省会城市的小规模、点状式扩张。③ 生态空间主要分布在胡焕庸线西北侧,整体呈现“西高东低,南高北低”的空间格局;④ 工业化、城镇化是中国三生空间变化的基本动力,西北和东北地区的农田开垦、华北平原和三大城市群的城镇化建设、黄土高原的退耕还林等是导致三生空间区域差异的主要原因。本文可以为三生空间的分类规划和优化决策提供参考依据。

关键词: 生产—, 生活—, 生态空间, 土地利用分类, 城乡发展一体化, 生态文明, 中国

Abstract:

This paper created a land use classification system of production-living-ecological spaces based on analyzing the theories of production-living-ecological spaces and commanding the dialectical relationships between land use types and land use functions. The classification system perfectly connected to the state standard of land use classification. Based on this system, we examined the spatial and temporal patterns of production-living-ecological spaces in China between 1990 and 2010. The results showed that: (1) The production spatial pattern almost unchanged between 1990 and 2010, and the production spaces were mainly distributed in the southeast of the Hu Huanyong Line, including Northeast China Plain, northwest Xinjiang, Ningxia, Lanzhou-Xining, Sichuan Basin, Bohai Rim, Yangtze River Delta, Xiamen-Quanzhou-Zhangzhou, and Pearl River Delta, where China's urban agglomerations and main grain production areas were located in. (2) Living spaces were mainly distributed in China's urban agglomerations and cities, showing a spatial pattern of "high in the east and north regions, while low in the west and south regions". Its spatial expansion varied in different areas. Large-scale expansion of living spaces appeared in the Bohai Rim, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta, while small-scale and point-type expansion in the major provincial capitals. (3) Ecological spaces were mainly distributed in the northwest of the Hu Huanyong Line, showing a spatial pattern of "high in the west and south regions, while low in the east and north regions". The expansion of ecological spaces were mainly in the Loess Plateau, Hulun Buir Glassland and Tianshan Mountains, while the reduction of ecological spaces were mainly in the Northeast China Plain, North China Plain, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, Ningxia and Xinjiang. (4) Industrialization and urbanization were the basic driving powers of changes of China's production-living-ecological spaces. The main reasons for regional spatial differences across China included farmland cultivation in Northwest and Northeast China, rapid urbanization in North China, Bohai Rim, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta, and reversion of farmland to forestland in the Loess Plateau. This research was valuable for the studies on classification and evaluation of production-living-ecological spaces.

Key words: production-living-ecological spaces, land use classification, integrated urban-rural development, ecological civilization, China