地理学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 71 ›› Issue (1): 142-152.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201601011

• 气候变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于高分辨率格点数据的1961-2013年青藏高原雪雨比变化

王杰(), 张明军(), 王圣杰, 任正果, 车彦军, 张富现   

  1. 西北师范大学地理与环境科学学院, 兰州 730070
  • 收稿日期:2015-06-19 修回日期:2015-11-16 出版日期:2016-01-31 发布日期:2016-01-15
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:王杰(1989-), 男, 甘肃庄浪人, 硕士, 主要从事全球变化与可持续发展方面的研究.E-mail: geowangjie@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    全球变化国家重大科学研究计划项目(2013CBA01801);国家自然科学基金项目(41461003, 41161012)

Change of snowfall/rainfall ratio in the Tibetan Plateau based on a gridded dataset with high resolution during 1961-2013

WANG Jie(), ZHANG Mingjun(), WANG Shengjie, REN Zhengguo, CHE Yanjun, ZHANG Fuxian   

  1. College of Geography and Environmental Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China
  • Received:2015-06-19 Revised:2015-11-16 Online:2016-01-31 Published:2016-01-15
  • Supported by:
    National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program), No.2013CBA01801;National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41461003, No.41161012

摘要:

基于国家气象信息中心发布的1961-2013年全国0.5° × 0.5°逐日降水量和日平均气温格点数据集以及气象站点日降水量和日平均气温实测资料,采用森斜率,M-K突变分析,IDW空间插值以及小波分析等方法,对近53年来青藏高原的降水量,降雨量,降雪量以及雪雨比的时空变化,突变和周期等特征进行了分析.结果表明:① 从时间尺度上看,青藏高原的降水量和降雨量总体呈增加趋势,增加幅度分别为0.6 mm·a-1(p < 0.05)和1.3 mm·a-1(p < 0.001);而降雪量和雪雨比均呈下降趋势,下降幅度分别为0.6 mm·a-1(p < 0.01)和0.5% a-1(p < 0.001).② 从空间分布上看,青藏高原的大部分地区降水量和降雨量呈增加趋势,而降雪量却呈现减少趋势.因此,雪雨比在青藏高原相应呈现减少趋势.③ 突变和周期分析表明,青藏高原降水量,降雨量,降雪量和雪雨比的突变时间分别出现在2005,2004,1996和1998年左右,而周期变化集中为5年,10年,16年,20年左右.④ 青藏高原降水量倾向率和降雨量倾向率均随海拔的升高呈现出先降低后升高的变化趋势,降雪量倾向率随海拔的升高而降低,雪雨比倾向率随海拔的升高呈微弱的下降趋势.

关键词: 青藏高原, 格点数据, 雪雨比, 倾向率

Abstract:

Based on the daily precipitation and temperature from a 0.5°×0.5° gridded dataset and meteorological stations during 1961-2013 released by the National Meteorological Information Center, the spatial and temporal changes of annual precipitation, rainfall, snowfall and snowfall/rainfall ratio (S/R) in the Tibetan Plateau in recent 53 years were analyzed by using Sen slope, Mann-Kendall mutation test, IDW (inverse distance-weighted) interpolation and Morlet wavelet. The results indicated that: (1) Generally, precipitation and rainfall show increasing trends by 0.6 mm·a-1 (p < 0.05) and 1.3 mm·a-1 (p < 0.001), respectively, while snowfall and S/R show decreasing trends by 0.6 mm·a-1 (p < 0.01) and 0.5%·a-1 (p < 0.001), respectively. (2) Precipitation and rainfall show increasing trends, but snowfall shows a decreasing trend in most parts of the Tibetan Plateau. On this basis, S/R shows a decreasing trend. (3) Abrupt and cycle analysis shows that the abrupt changes of the precipitation, rainfall, snowfall and S/R occurred in 2005, 2004, 1996 and 1998, respectively. The precipitation, rainfall, snowfall and S/R present cycles of approximately 5 years, 10 years, 16 years and 20 years, respectively. (4) As elevation increases, the trend magnitude for precipitation and rainfall shows a decrease-to-increase trend, and that for snowfall and S/R shows a decreasing trend.

Key words: Tibetan Plateau, gridded dataset, snowfall/rainfall ratio, trend