地理学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 71 ›› Issue (1): 118-129.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201601009

• 海岸 • 上一篇    下一篇

20世纪40年代初以来中国大陆沿海主要海湾形态变化

侯西勇1,3(), 侯婉1,2,3, 毋亭1,2,3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所,烟台 264003
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    3. 中国科学院海岸带环境过程与生态修复重点实验室,烟台 264003
  • 收稿日期:2015-08-15 修回日期:2015-12-18 出版日期:2016-01-31 发布日期:2016-01-15
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:侯西勇(1975-), 男, 山东泰安人, 博士, 研究员, 博士生导师, 中国地理学会会员(S110006477M), 主要从事海岸带土地利用变化与海岸线变化遥感监测,脆弱性评价及综合管理等方面的研究.E-mail: xyhou@yic.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(31461143032);中国科学院重点部署项目(KZZD-EW-TZ-15, KZZD-EW-14);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项子课题(XDA05130703)

Shape changes of major gulfs along the mainland of Chinasince the early 1940s

HOU Xiyong1,2(), HOU Wan1,2,3, WU Ting1,2,3   

  1. 1. Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, CAS, Yantai 264003, Shandong, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, CAS, Yantai 264003, Shandong, China
  • Received:2015-08-15 Revised:2015-12-18 Online:2016-01-31 Published:2016-01-15
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.31461143032;Key Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.KZZD-EW-TZ-15, No.KZZD-EW-14;Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.XDA05130703

摘要:

受气候变化和人类活动的影响,中国海岸带正在经历各种剧烈的变化,海湾形态变化是其中的一个重要方面.基于地形图资料与遥感影像提取20世纪40年代初至2014年7个时相的中国大陆沿海主要海湾的空间信息,进而分析海湾岸线类型结构,开发利用程度和空间位置的变化特征,以及海湾面积,形状和重心分布的变化特征.结果表明,20世纪40年代初以来,中国大陆沿海主要海湾的形态变化显著且复杂,主要体现为:海湾岸线的结构变化显著,自然岸线的长度和比例急剧减少;海湾岸线的开发利用程度持续增强;海湾岸线普遍背陆向海运动;海湾面积普遍大幅萎缩;海湾形状总体趋向复杂但个体间的差异在缩小;海湾重心分布位置普遍背陆向海迁移;海湾变化具有显著的时空差异性等.总的来说,以围填海为主的人类活动是导致海湾发生上述变化特征的主要原因.通过研究,指出应该对中国的海湾进行功能定位划分和分类管理,通过强化以海湾为基本单元的管理,促进中国海岸带综合管理能力的提高和管理目标的实现.

关键词: 海湾, 岸线结构, 岸线变化, 海湾面积, 形状指数, 海湾重心, 围填海

Abstract:

Impacted by climate changes and human activities, the coastal zone of China has undergone various dramatic changes, among which, shape change of major gulfs (including bays and estuaries) is one of the most important aspects. In this paper, spatial dataset of gulf shoreline and gulf shape in seven phases since the early 1940s was delineated based on topographic maps and remote sensing imageries, and a group of indices including the ratio of natural shoreline, the shoreline utilization degree, shoreline swing direction, gulf area, gulf shape index and gulf centroid were used to analyze the spatial-temporal characteristics of gulfs in detail. It turned out that: in general, shape changes of major gulfs in the mainland of China were significant and complicated during the past 70 years, specifically, visible changes of shoreline structure, especially the decreases in both length and ratio of natural shoreline took place; the shoreline utilization degree increased remarkably because more and more natural shoreline had been artificalized; the fact that shoreline seaward shift caused by sea reclamation occurred in the majority of gulfs; spatial size (area) decreased in most of gulfs due to the fast and extensive sea reclamation; the geometric shape of most gulfs had become more complicated while the discrepancies among all the gulfs were narrowed; the centroid of most gulfs moved toward the sea; gulf-shape variations exhibited remarkable spatio-temporal differences. It is obvious that human activities, especially sea reclamation, have become the key driving force of gulf shape change since 1990. Based on the above-mentioned findings, classification management strategy based on dominant-function oriented gulf classification is strongly recommended, and gulf-based management should be strengthen in order to improve the abilities of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) practices in China.

Key words: gulf, shoreline structure, shoreline change, gulf area, gulf shape index, gulf centroid, sea reclamation, China