地理学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 70 ›› Issue (9): 1402-1414.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201509004

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近50年来祁连山冰川变化——基于中国第一、二次冰川编目数据

孙美平1,2(), 刘时银2(), 姚晓军1, 郭万钦2, 许君利2   

  1. 1. 西北师范大学地理与环境科学学院,兰州 730070
    2. 中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所 冰冻圈科学国家重点实验室,兰州 730000
  • 收稿日期:2015-04-26 修回日期:2015-06-19 出版日期:2015-09-20 发布日期:2015-10-29
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:孙美平(1981-), 女, 辽宁沈阳人, 博士, 副教授, 主要从事寒区水文过程与气候变化影响评估研究。E-mail: sunmeiping1982@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    科技部科技基础性工作专项(2013FY111400);国家重大科学研究计划项目(2010CB951401);国家科技支撑计划项目(2012BAC19B07);国家自然科学基金(41261016);甘肃省高等学校科研项目(2014A-001, 2013A-018)

Glacier changes in the Qilian Mountains in the past half century: Based on the revised First and Second Chinese Glacier Inventory

Meiping SUN1,2(), Shiyin LIU2(), Xiaojun YAO1, Wanqin GUO2, Junli XU2   

  • Received:2015-04-26 Revised:2015-06-19 Online:2015-09-20 Published:2015-10-29
  • Supported by:
    National Basic Work Program of MST, No.2013FY111400;National Major Sciences Research, No.2010CB951401;National Science-technology Support Plan Project, No.2012BAC19B07;National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41261016;Scientific Research Project of Higher Learning Institution in Gansu Province, No.2014A-001, No.2013A-018

摘要:

基于修订后的祁连山区第一次冰川编目(1956-1983年)和最新发布的第二次冰川编目数据(2005-2010年),对祁连山区冰川变化进行分析。结果表明:① 祁连山区现有冰川2684条,面积1597.81±70.30βkm2,冰储量约84.48βkm3。其中,甘肃省和青海省各有冰川1492条和1192条,面积分别为760.96βkm2和836.85βkm2。② 祁连山区冰川数量和面积分别以面积< 1.0βkm2的冰川和面积介于1~5βkm2的冰川为主;冰川平均中值面积海拔为4972.7βm,并自东向西由4483.8βm逐渐上升为5234.1βm。③ 疏勒河流域冰川面积和冰储量最大,占祁连山冰川总量的31.91%和35.11%;其次是哈尔腾河流域,巴音郭勒河流域冰川面积最小,为2.20βkm2;黑河流域是祁连山区冰川平均面积最小的四级流域,冰川平均面积仅0.21βkm2。④ 近50年间祁连山冰川面积和冰储量分别减少420.81βkm2(-20.88%)和21.63βkm3(-20.26%)。面积< 1.0βkm2的冰川急剧萎缩是该区冰川面积减少的主要原因,海拔4000βm以下山区冰川已完全消失,海拔4350~5100βm区间冰川面积减少量占冰川面积总损失的84.24%。冰川数量和面积在各个朝向均呈减少态势,其中朝北冰川面积减少最多,朝东冰川面积减少最快,而西北朝向冰川变化最为缓慢。⑤ 祁连山冰川变化呈现明显的经度地带性分异,东段冰川退缩较快,中西段冰川面积减少较慢。

关键词: 冰川, 编目, 冰储量, 气候变化, 祁连山

Abstract:

According to the Second Chinese Glacier Inventory (SCGI) that were mostly compiled based on Landsat TM/ETM+images, the Qilian Mountains contained 2684 glaciers covering an area of 1597.81±70.30βkm2 and ice volume of ~84.48βkm3 from 2005 to 2010. While most glaciers are small (85.66% are smaller than 1.0βkm2), some larger ones (12.74%, with each having 1.0 and 5.0βkm2) cover 42.44% of the total glacier area. The Laohugou No.12 Glacier (20.42βkm2) located on the north slope of the Daxue Range is the only one larger than 20 km2 in the Qilian Mountains. The average median altitude of glacier was 4972.7βm a.s.l. and gradually rose from east to west. Glaciers in the Qilian Mountains are mostly distributed in Gansu and Qinghai provinces, which have 1492 glaciers (760.96βkm2) and 1192 glaciers (836.85βkm2), respectively. In 11 watersheds, the Shule River contains most of the glaciers in either area or volume. However, the Heihe River, the second longest interior river in China, has the minimum average area of glacier. Comparison of glaciers from the SCGI and the revised glacier inventory based on topographic maps and aerial photos taken from 1956 to 1983 indicated that all the glaciers in the Qilian Mountains were receding, which is consistent with other mountains and plateaus in western China. In the past half century, the area and volume of glaciers decreased by 420.81βkm2 (-20.88%) and 21.63βkm3 (-20.26%), respectively. The glaciers which are smaller than 1.0βkm2 constituted the main body of glacier number depression and area recession. Due to shrinkage, the glaciers below 4000βm a.s.l. completely disappeared.

Key words: glacier, glacier inventory, glacier volume, climate change, Qilian Mountains