地理学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 70 ›› Issue (6): 893-905.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201506004

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长春市大型商业网点的区位特征及其影响因素

王士君1(), 浩飞龙1(), 姜丽丽2   

  1. 1. 东北师范大学地理科学学院,长春 130024
    2. 哈尔滨师范大学地理科学学院,哈尔滨 150025
  • 收稿日期:2014-06-16 修回日期:2015-03-18 出版日期:2015-06-20 发布日期:2015-07-16
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:王士君(1963-), 男, 吉林长春人, 教授, 博士生导师, 主要从事城市地理、经济地理及城市与区域规划研究。E-mail:wangsj@nenu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41471142, 41201162)

Locations and their determinants of large-scale commercial sites in Changchun, China

Shijun WANG1(), Feilong HAO1(), Lili JIANG2   

  1. 1. School of Geographical Science, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China
    2. College of Geographical Science, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025, China
  • Received:2014-06-16 Revised:2015-03-18 Online:2015-06-20 Published:2015-07-16
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41471142, No.41201162

摘要:

以长春市中心城区大型商业网点调研数据为基础,选取专业店、专卖店、大型商场、大型超市、家居建材商店、综合交易市场六种商业业态类型,运用点模式分析、有序多分类逻辑回归等研究方法,探讨长春市大型商业网点的区位特征,并解释其区位选择的影响因素。研究发现:长春市大型商业网点的空间分布总体呈中心集聚与外围分散并存的态势,但集聚现象更显著,并表现出沿城市综合性中心地、商业中心布局的特征;各业态类型网点空间分布差异性较大,且具有不同尺度的空间集聚表现,专业店、大型商场以小尺度范围的空间集聚为主,集聚程度较低;专卖店和综合交易市场的集聚程度相对较高,且后者区位选择的空间尺度范围较大;大型超市在空间上呈均匀离散分布,家居建材商店仅在小尺度范围内表现出集聚分布;业态类型、土地价格、交通通达性及集聚特征是影响商业网点分布最显著的因素,同类因素对不同业态商业网点分布的影响程度差异性较大。

关键词: 商业网点, 零售业态, 区位特征, 影响因素, 长春市

Abstract:

Retail formats refer to the forms and patterns of managing commercial enterprises that differ in their market orientations and locations. The outcomes of the location choices of different forms of business enterprises determine their specific commercial structures. In recent years, spatial distribution and location decisions relating to emerging formats such as chain supermarkets have emerged as a new research area in China. This study aims to reveal differences in the spatial distribution characteristics of different retail formats and the factors influencing their location choices in Changchun, China. Based on 2013 survey data for large-scale commercial sites in the central district of Changchun, the study focuses on six types of retail formats: specialty stores, exclusive shops, department stores, supermarkets, warehouses, and markets. Point pattern analysis and ordinal logistic regression analysis were performed to explore the locational features and determinants of large-scale commercial sites in Changchun. The findings of this study suggest that the spatial distribution of large-scale commercial sites in Changchun entails coexistence of concentration in the core area and diffusion in the peripheral area. This agglomeration feature was clearly apparent in the city center and business centers. Moreover, the spatial distribution of commercial activities and spatial agglomeration features varied considerably according to regional scalar differences. The primary determinants of the spatial distribution of commercial sites were: type of commercial activity, land price, transport accessibility, and agglomeration. Population density and business environment factors did influence the location choice of retail outlets to some extent, but this influence was not significant. Each of these determinants was found to have its own effects on the spatial distribution of different kinds of commercial sites. Thus, specialty and department stores were usually aggregated in small regions, demonstrating lower performance levels that were dependent on population density, transport accessibility, and the business environment. Exclusive shops and markets, affected by land prices and transportation accessibility, showed higher levels of agglomeration at a larger regional scale, especially markets. The weak dependence of supermarkets on these determinants and their characteristically discrete distribution indicate that their spatial layouts were the result of competition and the city’s market environment. Warehouses were only aggregated in small-scale areas at the border of the city because of land prices, industrial characteristics, and transport accessibility.

Key words: commercial site, retail format, locational feature, locational determinant, Changchun