地理学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 70 ›› Issue (6): 851-863.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201506001

• •    下一篇

基于批判地缘政治学视角解读经典地缘政治理论

胡志丁1,2(), 陆大道2()   

  1. 1. 云南师范大学旅游与地理科学学院,昆明 650500
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2014-08-13 修回日期:2015-01-07 出版日期:2015-06-20 发布日期:2015-07-16
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:胡志丁(1986-), 男, 江西上饶人, 博士后, 讲师, 主要从事全球化与地缘环境研究。E-mail:huzhiding2007@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41401157);山区新型城镇化与资源环境协调发展研究创新团队

The re-interpretation of the classical geopolitical theories from a critical geopolitical perspective

Zhiding HU1,2(), Dadao LU1()   

  1. 1. School of Tourism and Geography Science, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650500, China
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2014-08-13 Revised:2015-01-07 Online:2015-06-20 Published:2015-07-16
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41401157;Study on Coordinated Development between New-type Urbanization and Resource Development among the Mountainous Area of Yunnan

摘要:

大国间的争霸与兴衰更替,无不受地缘法则的支配。地理学者应紧跟时代的步伐,准确把握国家利益之所在,抓住机遇为民族伟大复兴做出贡献。但是,缺乏对地缘政治学的历史和哲学的批判将不能准确理解和有效实践地缘政治理论。本文简要介绍了批判地缘政治学的发展,总结了批判地缘政治学的3个特点,据此对4个经典地缘政治理论进行了解读。为了简化解读过程,首先提出了一个解读4个经典地缘政治理论的分析框架;其次根据这个分析框架重点解读了麦金德的“历史的地理枢纽”;最后对4个经典地缘政治理论进行了批判性总结。通过批判性解读,得出经典地缘政治理论既有科学性一面,也有假说性和理念性的一面。经典地缘政治理论构建是基于国际地缘格局、国家利益空间分布、国家间空间冲突而构建的,并展现了理论建构者的身份,体现了地缘政治理论的历史性、社会性、情境性和地理知识—权力结构。

关键词: 批判地缘政治, 地缘政治, 国家有机体论, 海权论, 陆权论, 边缘地带论

Abstract:

The rise to supremacy and decline of big powers are all subject to the laws of geopolitics. Geographers should keep up with the pace of the times, and accurately get an overall understanding of the interests of the state to seize the opportunity to contribute to the great rejuvenation of Chinese nation. However, the lack of criticism for history and philosophy of geopolitics will make it unable to understand the practice of geopolitical theory accurately and effectively. Therefore, this paper introduces the development of the critical geopolitics, which summarizes three characteristics of critical geopolitics so as to explain the four classical geopolitical theories. In order to simplify the explanation and interpretation, this paper first proposes an analytical framework of four classical geopolitical theories. Secondly, we explain "The Geographical Pivot of History" put forward by Mackinder as a focal point. Lastly, we draw a conclusion on the four classic critical geopolitical theories. The conclusion made through the critical interpretation is that the classical theory of geopolitics is not only scientific, but also hypothetic and idealistic to some extent. The construction of the classical geopolitical theory is established based on international geopolitical structure, spatial distribution of the interests of the state and space conflicts between countries, which shows the identity of theoretical constructionist, and reflects the historical, social and situational sides of the geopolitical theory and geography - power structure.

Key words: critical geopolitics, geopolitics, national organism theory, sea power theory, land power theory, edge district theory