地理学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 70 ›› Issue (6): 1008-1021.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201506013

• • 上一篇    

山东省沂水县农村非农化程度差异及驱动力

张佰林1,2(), 张凤荣1,2(), 曲宝德3, 李灿4, 陈军伟3   

  1. 1. 中国农业大学资源与环境学院, 北京 100193
    2. 中国农业大学土地利用与管理研究中心,北京 100193
    3. 临沂市国土资源局,临沂 276001
    4. 华南农业大学公共管理学院, 广州 510642
  • 收稿日期:2014-10-11 修回日期:2015-01-18 出版日期:2015-06-20 发布日期:2015-07-16
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:张佰林(1987-), 男, 山东沂水人, 博士研究生, 研究方向为土地整理与可持续利用。E-mail:zhangbailin135@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41271111);国家自然科学基金青年项目(41401626)

Rural non-agricultural differences and their driving forces at the county level: A case study of 16 villages in Yishui, Shandong, East China

Bailin ZHANG1,2(), Fengrong ZHANG1,2(), Baode QU3, Can LI4, Junwei CHEN3   

  1. 1. Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
    2. Research Center of Land Use and Management, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
    3. Land and Resources Bureau of Linyi, Linyi 276001, Shandong, China
    4. School of Public Management, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
  • Received:2014-10-11 Revised:2015-01-18 Online:2015-06-20 Published:2015-07-16
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41271111;National Natural Science Foundation of China to Young Scholars, No.41401626

摘要:

非农化是中国快速工业化、城镇化进程中农村演变的重要趋势,呈现出明显的空间异质性。以山东省沂水县为例,选取16个典型样点村,根据农户就业地域空间差异,将农户就业划分为县域外非农就业、县域非农就业、县域非农兼业和农业生产4类,在此基础上,选取非农就业劳动力、收入和时间比例3个指标研究县域农村非农化程度差异及驱动力。结果表明,沂水县农村非农化程度介于37.54%~90.65%,非农化现象普遍。县域农村非农化程度的总体分布特征为:近郊村最高;随着与城镇的临近,粮食作物主导村提高、经济作物主导村降低;同一地形区内,粮食作物主导村高于经济作物主导村。农村非农分化趋势明显。驱动力研究表明,受县域城镇经济实力、农村到城镇的可达性,农业收益及劳动需求量等的综合影响,不同类型农村劳动力就业结构存在差异,进而导致县域农村非农化程度的差异。研究认为,当前农村非农化普遍,且非农分化明显。政府应根据不同类型农村非农化程度差异的内容及驱动因素,实施差别化的农村发展管理措施。

关键词: 农村, 非农化, 差异, 驱动力, 山东省沂水县

Abstract:

In the rapid process of industrialization and urbanization, non-agriculturalization has become one important tendency of Chinese rural evolution, which at the same time indicates obvious spatial heterogeneity. The participatory rural appraisal is employed, which involves 16 typical villages of Yishui County in Shandong Province, to explore the rural non-agricultural differences and its driving factors. In terms of regional differentiation, the livelihood activities of rural households were divided into four types: non-agricultural employment outside the county, non-agricultural employment inside the county, part-time non-agricultural employment inside the county and agricultural production. Then, we quantified the non-agricultural level by estimating the proportion of rural non-agricultural labor, non-agricultural income and non-agricultural time in 2013. On the basis of this estimation, we discussed the spatial differences and driving forces of rural non-agriculturalization in the study area. The results showed that, (1) Non-agricultural level of the villages was between 37.54% and 90.65%, which indicated that non-agriculturalization was a common phenomenon in traditional agricultural regions. Suburban independent non-agricultural villages developed their own industries, while rural households of other villages were employed in non-agricultural industries outside their villages. It is indicated that the study area was underdeveloped in non-agricultural economy. (2) Suburban villages hold the highest non-agricultural level. Food crops dominated villages showed higher level of non-agriculturalization in the regions near town, while economic crops dominated villages showed lower level of non-agriculturalization. In the same geomorphologic region, food crops dominated villages showed higher level of non-agriculturization than economic crops dominated villages. Spatial differentiation of rural non-agriculturalization was remarkable in traditional agricultural regions at the county scale. (3) As the distances to town became shorter, there was a decline in the proportion of non-agricultural employment outside the county (labor, income, and time), and that inside the county was on the rise, and the proportion of part-time non-agricultural employment inside the county showed an inverted "U"-shaped pattern. (4) The driving mechanism showed that economic diffusing efficiency and the regional accessibility were both deeply influencing employment structure of rural labors, which kept the suburban villages at the highest non-agricultural level. Agricultural income and the demand for labor made non-agricultural level of food crops dominated villages higher than that of economic crops dominated villages. As the distances to town became shorter, owing to economic diffusing efficiency and agricultural income increase, food crops dominated villages showed higher level of non-agriculturalization while economic crops dominated villages showed lower level. Non-agricultural differentiation is an important development trend of traditional agricultural regions in East China. Therefore, the authors suggest that the governments should take concrete measures on rural development management that keep consistent with non-agricultural characteristics and its driving mechanism of different villages.

Key words: village, non-agriculture, difference, driving force, Yishui County, Shandong Province