地理学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 70 ›› Issue (2): 297-307.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201502010

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中美过去300年土地利用变化比较

何凡能1,2(), 李美娇1,2,3, 肖冉1,2,3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院陆地表层格局与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    3. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2014-09-11 修回日期:2014-12-11 出版日期:2015-02-20 发布日期:2015-02-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:何凡能(1963-), 男, 福建仙游人, 研究员, 中国地理学会会员(S110006132M), 主要研究方向为历史地理与环境变迁。E-mail: hefn@igsnrr.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    全球变化研究国家重大科学研究计划(2010CB950901);国家自然科学基金项目(41271227)

Comparisons of the land use and cover change in China and the United States over the past 300 years

Fanneng HE1(), Meijiao LI1,2, Ran XIAO1,2   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2014-09-11 Revised:2014-12-11 Online:2015-02-20 Published:2015-02-20
  • Supported by:
    China Global Change Research Program, No.2010CB950901;National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41271227

摘要:

开展历史土地利用变化的国别对比研究,不仅有利于深化大尺度LUCC过程与驱动机制的科学认识,而且对深入研究历史碳排放责任等也有着重要意义。利用长时间序列数据,对中美两国过去300年土地利用/覆被变化的时空特征及驱动因素进行对比分析。结果表明:① 过去300年中美两国耕地数量总体均呈持续增长态势,中国在1661-1980s的320余年间耕地总量增长了79.46×104 km2,但人均耕地面积却从1685年的5.5亩,下降至2000年的1.5亩;而美国在1700-1950年的250年间耕地面积增加了190.87×104 km2,且人均耕地面积均超过9亩,其中1890年高达30.2亩。② 受土地垦殖扩张影响,过去300年中美两国林、草地资源均呈持续减少态势;其中,美国森林面积减少了约145×104 km2,草地面积减少约137×104 km2;而中国森林面积减少了约90×104 km2,草地面积减少了约40×104 km2。③ 从空间格局变化特征看,过去300年中国土地垦殖主要向边区(如东北、西南、内蒙等)及内地山地丘陵区发展;而美国在“西进运动”的影响下,大规模向中西部拓殖。④ 政策、人口、农业技术等因素是影响过去300年中美土地利用/覆被变化的主要因素,但由于两国资源禀赋及发展历史的差异,虽然直接驱动力均体现为政策因素,但就根本驱动因素而言,中国是人口数量,美国则是经济利益;同时,在农业技术发展取向上,中国因“人多地少”,走“精耕细作”之路,而美国因“人少地多”,走“机械化”之途。

关键词: 土地利用/覆被变化, 历史比较, 过去300年, 中国, 美国

Abstract:

The comparative studies of large-scale land use and land cover change (LUCC) among different countries can deepen our understanding of its historical processes and driving forces, and it is also significant for the regulation of human land-use behavior and adaptation to global climate change. Based on the data covering a long time scale, this paper compared and analyzed the temporal and spatial characteristics of LUCC between China and the United States (US) over the past 300 years. The results are shown as follows. (1) Over the past 300 years, the cropland area shows a growing tendency overall in both China and the US. As a traditional agricultural country, China increased cropland area by 79.46×104 km2 for 1661-1980s, but the per capita cropland decreased from 5.5 mu (Chinese area unit, 1 mu = 666.7 m2) in 1685 to 1.5 mu in 2000; while the cropland area of the US increased by 190.87×104 km2 for 1700-1950 and the per capita cropland area increased from 9.4 mu in 1700 to 30.2 mu in 1890, although the US has a short history and its agriculture started late. (2) Affected by the land reclamation, the forest and grassland areas decreased by about 1.45 million km2 and 1.37 million km2 in the US over the past 300 years; and the corresponding numbers of China are about 0.90 million km2 and 0.40 million km2, respectively. (3) In terms of the variation of spatial pattern, cropland expansion of China mainly occurred in border areas (such as the northeast, southwest, Inner Mongolia) and the mainland hilly areas; while under the influence of the "westward movement", cropland expansion of the US occurred in the Midwest. (4) The main factors affecting land use change of China and the US are policy, population and agricultural technology. Because of the differences in resource endowment and agricultural development history between the two countries, the population and economic interests are the fundamental driving factors to China and the US, respectively. In terms of the orientation of agricultural technology development, China has a large population and less per capita cropland area, and the agricultural technology improved slowly, while the US has a small population and more per capita cropland area, but the agricultural technology improved quickly, especially in the terms of the mechanization.

Key words: LUCC, historical comparison, past 300 years, China, the United States