地理学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 70 ›› Issue (5): 828-836.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201505013

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近50年来长江河口分汊型河槽水体和泥沙容量的变化过程

姚俊(), 施野, 张国安()   

  1. 华东师范大学 河口海岸学国家重点实验室,上海 200062
  • 收稿日期:2015-02-09 修回日期:2015-03-26 出版日期:2015-05-20 发布日期:2015-06-11
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:姚俊(1991-), 男, 硕士研究生, 主要从事海岸动力地貌研究。E-mail: junior199188@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(41376098);科技部基础性工作专项重点项目(2013FY112000)

The change process of water and sediment volume of branchingchannel in the Yangtze River during 1958-2013

Jun YAO(), Ye SHI, Guoan ZHANG()   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Estuary and Coast, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
  • Received:2015-02-09 Revised:2015-03-26 Online:2015-05-20 Published:2015-06-11
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41376098;The Key Program for Fundamental Work, Ministry of Science and Technology, No.2013FY112000

摘要:

根据1958-2013各年代长江河口河槽海图水深资料,利用Arcmap地图分析软件建立不同时期的水深数据库,以河口河槽水体和泥沙容量为研究对象,结合典型潮汐过程和典型年代水沙同步实测资料,计算长江口各分汊河槽最大理论进潮量和悬沙含量,探讨近50年来长江分汊型河口河槽水体和泥沙容量的变化过程和影响因素。结果表明:① 北港河槽总体稳定,南港河槽仍处于发育阶段,南港河槽发育中心在南港下段,北港河槽上段区域略有萎缩;② 目前,南、北槽河槽由于工程影响仍处于持续调整过程中,进潮量主增区域在南港和南槽,北槽发育模式已经被固定和限制。③ 近30年来,由于流域来水来沙减少,同时北槽深水航道工程的建设,使南、北槽进潮量和悬沙通量及其比例均发生了显著变化;④ 南北港水道悬沙量主要集中于北港下段及南北槽区域,其洪枯季悬沙含量的变化主要受冬夏季风和海洋动力条件的影响。

关键词: 最大进潮量, 河槽水体容量, 河槽悬沙量, GIS, 长江河口

Abstract:

Based on the materials of water depth of 1958-2013 in the Yangtze Estuary channel, this article established the database of water depth during different periods with the aid of the Arcmap analysis software. The results showed that: (1) The state of the north passage channel was basically stable, and the river channel in the south passage was experiencing a developing stage. The developing center of the south passage channel was observed in the lower reach, while the upper reach of the north passage channel had slightly shrunk. (2) Currently, the south and north passages were still shifting under the effect of the project. The area where the tidal increased was mainly found in the south passage and south channel. The developing pattern in the north passage was fixed and confined. (3) In the study period, with the reduced amount of sediments from the catchment and the construction of the deep sea waterway project in the north passage, the tidal volume, suspended sediment flux and the ratio of them changed obviously. (4) The sediments in the north and south channels are concentrated in the lower part of the north channel and also in the south and north passages.

Key words: tidal volume, water capacity of channel, sediment volume of channel, GIS, Yangtze Estuary