地理学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 69 ›› Issue (4): 531-540.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201404009

• 旅游地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

旅游地乡村聚落演变与土地利用模式——野三坡旅游区三个旅游村落案例研究

席建超1, 王新歌1,2, 孔钦钦1,2, 张楠1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101;
    2. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2013-03-13 修回日期:2013-09-01 出版日期:2014-04-20 发布日期:2014-04-20
  • 作者简介:席建超(1972-),男,河南确山人,副研究员,博士后,研究兴趣主要集中在旅游地用地格局演变及其环境效应,区域旅游发展规划等。E-mail:xijc@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(40971299)

Spatial morphology evolution of rural settlements induced by tourism:A comparative study of three villages in Yesanpo tourism area, China

XI Jianchao1, WANG Xinge1,2, KONG Qinqin1,2, ZHANG Nan1,2   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2013-03-13 Revised:2013-09-01 Published:2014-04-20 Online:2014-04-20
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40971299

摘要: 旅游村落在旅游地系统演化中扮演着重要的角色,并逐步成为中国新型城镇化过程中重要的乡村发展类型。研究采取参与式农村评估(PRA)、GIS 空间分析和Google earth 高清遥感影像相结合的方法,以野三坡旅游区3 个旅游乡村聚落为例,从土地利用和空间形态变迁两个维度,分析了旅游业诱导下旅游地乡村聚落的空间演变规律。研究发现,因区位条件的差异,乡村聚落土地利用模式演变呈现出“核心—边缘”的差异,距离核心景区越近的村落,土地集约利用程度越高,旅游功能愈加完善,村落风貌格局变化愈大。其中,苟各庄村用地容积率由0.17 提高到0.44,但村落原真性破坏最严重,原真性指数为仅为0.048,是3 个村子最低的,其旅游功能也最完善;刘家河村落土地扩张规模最大,建设用地由173564 m2扩展到341128 m2,增幅达到96.54%,村落的原真性相对保持稳定,为0.566,旅游功能相对完整;上庄村是原真性保持最好的村落,原真性指数则高达0.942,但是其建设用地规模和用地强度则最低,但其旅游功能也最单一。显然,在具体空间形态上,3 个村落也表现为“现代城镇”—“半城镇化”—“传统村落”的过渡特征,并对应形成“就地重建型”、“飞地开发型”、“原地利用型”3 种空间重构模式。乡村聚落作为乡村旅游发展的最基本空间单元,这3 个乡村聚落发展模式隐含着旅游地传统乡村聚落“旅游化”空间演变的阶段形态,这种空间模式在国内旅游地乡村聚落演变中具有一定的代表性。

关键词: 空间演变, 乡村聚落, 土地利用, 野三坡旅游区

Abstract: As the main reception base and important tourism attraction, tourism village is the core element of the tourism destination system, and has also become one of the most important forms of rural urbanization in China. Integrating the method of PRA (participatory rural assessment), GIS technology and HD remote sensing images, this study aims to analyze the spatial morphology evolution of rural settlements induced by tourism through a comparative study of three tourism villages in Yesanpo tourism destination. The results suggest that there exists a "core-periphery" pattern of the spatial evolution of rural settlements. The closer to the core scenic spot, the higher degree of land-use intensity the village shows, as well as the more mature tourism function and greater change in landscape pattern. In the research, Gougezhuang shows an increase of the floor area ratio from 0.17 to 0.44, with the most mature tourism function and destroyed landscape authenticity as well and it has the lowest authenticity index of 0.448. Liujiahe has gone through a largest increase of 96.54% in construction land area, with moderately mature tourism function and relatively stable authenticity of 0.566. Shangzhuang, in contrast, has the lowest construction land scale and intensity, with the poorest tourism function and most well-preserved landscape authenticity of 0.942. Overall, in term of the spatial morphology, the three villages are characterized by "modern town", "semi-urbanization" and "traditional village", respectively, in corresponding to three land development types: "intensive reconstruction type", "enclave extension type" and "in situ using type". Tourism village is the basic spatial unit of rural tourism. The spatial evolution patterns of these three villages present the spatial characteristics of the touristization of traditional villages in different stages, and also has great representative value for the management of rural settlements in tourism destinations of China.

Key words: rural settlements, spatial evaluation, land use, Yesanpo tourism area