地理学报 ›› 2013, Vol. 68 ›› Issue (11): 1559-1567.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201311011

• 环境研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

岷江上游山区聚落生态位垂直分异研究

王青1, 石敏球1, 郭亚琳1, 张宇2   

  1. 1. 西南科技大学环境与资源学院, 四川绵阳621010;
    2. 中国科学院山地灾害与环境研究所, 成都610041
  • 收稿日期:2013-04-08 修回日期:2013-10-11 出版日期:2013-11-20 发布日期:2014-01-07
  • 作者简介:王青(1967-),男,山西阳高人,博士,教授,中国地理学会山地分会委员,主要从事山区环境与发展研究。E-mail:qingw@imde.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41071115);四川省科技支撑项目(2012SZ0175)

The vertical differentiation of the mountain settlement niche in the upper reaches of Minjiang River

WANG Qing1, SHI Minqiu1, GUO Yalin1, ZHANG Yu2   

  1. 1. School of Environment and Resource, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan, China;
    2. Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS, Chengdu 610041, China
  • Received:2013-04-08 Revised:2013-10-11 Online:2013-11-20 Published:2014-01-07
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41071115; Provincial Key Technology R&D Program of Science & Technology Department of Sichuan, No.2012SZ0175

摘要: 以岷江上游山区聚落为研究对象,采用生态位的方法,利用遥感资料和GIS技术,提取岷江上游山区空间信息,定量研究山区聚落生态位影响尺度、人口密度及民族类型带谱垂直分异特征,并建立民族聚落生态位类型图谱。研究表明:聚落生态位地理半径随着海拔升高而增大,其数值介于300~600 m;相反,聚落生态位人口密度却随着海拔升高而递减,其数值介于200~630 人/km2;聚落生态位地理半径和人口密度的垂直分异特征,是山区居民长期适应山地环境的结果,与民族类型及其生计方式密切相关。在流域尺度上,岷江上游作为我国西南地区的一条民族廊道,聚落生态位民族类型空间格局具有典型的带谱特征:藏族和回族聚落生态位均处于河流干支流的上部,羌族聚落生态位对应于干旱河谷和V型河谷上部的低半山缓坡地带,汉族聚落生态位位于岷江上游入口处的河谷地带。

关键词: 山区聚落, 垂直分异, 生态位, 岷江上游, 地学图谱

Abstract: Based on remote sensing data and the geographic information system, the spatial information of the human settlements in the upper reaches of Minjiang River was extracted. Then, using the method of niche, the geo-information spectra of human settlement niches were established, including their spatial influence scopes, population densities and nationality types. The results show that: the radius in geography of settlement niche increases as altitude increases, spanning from 300-600 m; on the contrary, the population density decreases as altitude increases, ranging from 200-630 people/km2. The vertical differentiation characteristics, namely the radius in physical geography and the population density of settlement niche, reflect the adaptation of local residents to the mountain environment in the periods of historical evolution, which is closely related with the characteristics of the nationalities and their livelihoods. In basin scale, the spatial pattern of settlement niche of national types in the upper reaches of Minjiang River, as one of the national corridors in Southwest China, has some typical characteristics, (1) the settlement niches of Tibetan and Hui nationalities are located in the upper reaches of the main stream and tributaries, (2) the settlement niche of Qiang nationality lies in the arid valley and the gentle slope of the upper V-shaped valley, (3) the settlement niche of Han nationality is located in the valley of the entrance of the upper reaches of Minjiang River. The paper presents important models for clarifying the range of human activities in mountain areas, and useful ways for macro-regulation of the local governments.

Key words: niche, the upper reaches of Minjiang River, mountain settlement, vertical differentiation, geo-information spectra