地理学报 ›› 2013, Vol. 68 ›› Issue (10): 1344-1356.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201310004

• 城市与区域发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

城市昼夜人口空间分布的估算及其特征——以北京市海淀区为例

戚伟1,2, 李颖1,2, 刘盛和1, 高晓路1, 赵美风1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101;
    2. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2013-12-11 修回日期:2013-06-27 出版日期:2013-10-20 发布日期:2013-10-20
  • 通讯作者: 刘盛和(1967-), 男, 湖南衡阳人, 博士, 研究员, 中国地理学会会员(S110002420M), 研究方向为城市发展与土地利用。E-mail: liush@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:戚伟(1989-), 男, 江苏泰州人, 博士研究生, 中国地理学会会员(S110007891A), 主要从事城市地理研究。E-mail: cc7v@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家科技支撑计划(2011BAK07B02-02);国家自然科学基金项目(41271174);国家科技支撑计划(2012BAI32B06-1)

Estimation of urban population at daytime and nighttime and analyses of their spatial pattern:A case study of Haidian District, Beijing

QI Wei1,2, LI Ying1,2, LIU Shenghe1, GAO Xiaolu1, ZHAO Meifeng1,2   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2013-12-11 Revised:2013-06-27 Online:2013-10-20 Published:2013-10-20
  • Supported by:
    National Science and Technology Support Program, No.2011BAK07B02-02; National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41271174; National Science and Technology Support Program, No.2012BAI32B06-1

摘要: 城市人口的空间分布特征及昼夜差异是配置城市公共基础设施及公共服务设施和制订城市公共安全应急保障方案的重要依据,也是城市地理研究领域的前沿方向之一。但由于国内目前没有区分昼夜的人口统计数据,城市昼夜人口空间分布的相关研究难以开展,极为薄弱。本文以土地利用类型为媒介,构建基于不同类型城市人口时空行为特征的城市“人口—昼夜—土地利用”关系模型和基于差异化面积权重的城市人口空间化模型,旨在以格网为单元来估算城市昼夜人口并分析其空间分布特征。同时,以北京市海淀区为例开展实证研究,估算了海淀区的昼夜人口规模,分析了城市昼夜人口的空间分布特征及其空间耦合关系。结果表明:① 城市昼夜人口的空间结构存在显著差异,白天人口相对于夜晚人口具有更广泛的分布范围,并具有更显著的集聚特征。② 城市昼夜人口表现为多种空间耦合关系,包括“三明治”模式、“镶嵌”模式、“辐合”模式、“单体”模式等。③ 城市路网的昼夜利用与人口的昼夜分布有较高的相关性,白天人口分布对路网扩张有显著影响。城市昼夜人口的空间分布折射出中国城镇化进程中诸多因素,例如“旧住宅区”的分布、产业新区的建设、城乡发展差异等,以期对相关的研究提供参考。

关键词: 北京, 人口空间化, 空间耦合类型, 城市昼夜人口

Abstract: Urban population at daytime and nighttime and their spatial distribution are basis for planning urban infrastructure, public services and disaster relief, and it is also a leading edge for urban geography study. Because current statistical data in China cannot distinguish urban population at daytime from that at nighttime, existing research in this field is limited. Aiming to estimate urban population at daytime and nighttime and to analyze their spatial characteristics, this paper establishes a relationship model among urban population, time (daytime or nighttime) and types of land-use, and a population spatial distribution model based on different area weights, and also conducts an empirical study on the Haidian District in Beijing. The results are shown as follows. (1) There are many differences between daytime and nighttime population in spatial structure. Population is more concentrated during daytime. (2) There are many spatial coupling relationships between daytime and nighttime population, such as sandwich mode, inlay mode, convergence mode, and monomer mode. (3) There is a great difference in the use of road networks between daytime and nighttime. This phenomenon is related to the spatial distribution between daytime and nighttime. It seems that daytime population has a notable influence on road expansion. The spatial distribution of daytime and nighttime population also reflects some phenomena in the develop-ment of China, such as the distribution of old residential areas, the construction of new industrial districts, the differences between urban and rural areas, which can provide some reference for the studies in this field and other regional research.

Key words: spatial patterns, urban population at daytime and at nighttime, Beijing, spatial coupling types