地理学报 ›› 2013, Vol. 68 ›› Issue (10): 1316-1330.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201310002

• 城市与区域发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国中西部大城市的职住平衡与通勤效率——以西安为例

周江评1, 陈晓键2, 黄伟3, 于鹏3, 张纯4   

  1. 1. 美国爱荷华州立大学社区与区域规划系, 美国爱荷华州 50011;
    2. 西安建筑科技大学建筑学院, 西安 710055;
    3. 中国城市规划设计研究院交通所, 北京 100037;
    4. 北京交通大学建筑与艺术系, 北京 100044
  • 收稿日期:2012-11-28 修回日期:2013-04-10 出版日期:2013-10-20 发布日期:2013-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 陈晓键, 教授, 博士生导师, 中国地理学会会员(S110004883M), 主要从事城市与区域规划方面的研究。
  • 作者简介:周江评, 男, 博士, 助理教授, 主要研究方向城市形态、可持续发展的城市和交通系统。E-mail: zjp@iastate.edu
  • 基金资助:
    爱荷华州立大学新教授启动基金项目(ISU286252967);爱荷华州立大学国外旅行基金项目(20121017)

Jobs-housing balance and commute efficiency in cities of central and western China:A case study of Xi’an

ZHOU Jiangping1, CHEN Xiaojian2, HUANG Wei3, YU Peng3, ZHANG Chun4   

  1. 1. Department of Community and Regional Planning, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA;
    2. School of Architecture, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi'an 710055, China;
    3. China Academy of Urban Planning and Design, Beijing 100037, China;
    4. School of Architecture and Design, Beijing Jiaotong Universty, Beijing 100044, China
  • Received:2012-11-28 Revised:2013-04-10 Online:2013-10-20 Published:2013-11-20
  • Supported by:
    Iowa State University New Faculty Start-up Package, No.ISU286252967; Iowa State University Foreign Travel Grant, No.20121017

摘要: 城市规划和政策若追求减少小汽车依赖,增加公共交通的吸引力和改善生活品质,职住平衡是当中不可忽视的问题、甚至是策略。既有职住平衡研究很少审视发展中的城市,尤其是中国西部城市。本文提出了影响职住平衡的6 组因素,而职住平衡影响通勤效率。6 组因素对于不同发展阶段的城市影响也不同。因此有必要辨识出影响发展中城市的具体因素以便改善其职住平衡和通勤效率。改善职住平衡和通勤效率有助于这些城市吸引人才和提高它们在交通机动性、生活品质和可持续方面的竞争力。利用2011 年西安市居民交通调查的59967个样本,研究了该市的通勤效率、职住平衡和过剩通勤,并和其它国内外城市可比指标进行比较。本文发现西安平均通勤距离较短,通勤效率较高。从交通分析小区的水平,西安职工的平均通勤距离和工作岗位/居民数量和工作岗位总数成反比。当地单位大院的职住平衡和通勤效率较好,但正在降低。

关键词: 过剩通勤, 西安, 职住平衡, 通勤效率

Abstract: Jobs-housing balance is an inevitable topic and even strategy in most urban plans and policies aimed at reducing car dependence, increasing public transportation's attractiveness and/or improving quality of life. Existing studies of jobs-housing balance have rarely focused on developing cities, in particular, those in central and western China. This manuscript proposes that there are six groups of factors affecting jobs-housing balance, which notably influence commute efficiency. Those factors exert different impacts on jobs-housing balance in cities at different development stages. There is need to single out specific factors influencing developing cities' jobs-housing balance so as to better improve their jobs-housing balance and commute efficiency. Improved jobs-housing balance and commute efficiency should help the developing cities gain advantages in terms of attracting and keeping talented workers and increasing their competitiveness in traffic mobility, quality of life and sustainability. Based on 59,967 samples of the 2011 Xi'an City-Wide Household Travel Survey, this paper investigates the commute efficiency, jobs-housing balance and excess commute in Xi'an. It also compares relevant indictors of Xi'an with those in other Chinese and international cities whenever possible. It finds that Xi'an has a shorter actual average commuting distance and higher commute efficiency than most other cities that have been studied in existing literature. Average commuting distance in Xi'an is found to be negatively correlated to jobs-resident ratio and total number of employment. Danwei compounds in the city still have decent jobs-housing balance and commuting efficiency but this pattern is changing.

Key words: jobs-housing balance, commute efficiency, Xi’an, excessive commute