地理学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 67 ›› Issue (8): 1044-1056.doi: 10.11821/xb201208004

• 城市与文化地理 • 上一篇    下一篇


何深静1, 钱俊希2, 徐雨璇1, 刘斌3   

  1. 1. 中山大学地理科学与规划学院, 亚热带建筑科学国家重点实验室, 广东省城市化与地理环境空间模拟重点实验室, 广州 510275;
    2. 英国爱丁堡大学人文地理系, 苏格兰爱丁堡EH8 9XP;
    3. 国家海洋局南海海洋工程勘察与环境研究院, 广州 510300
  • 收稿日期:2011-11-28 修回日期:2012-03-16 出版日期:2012-08-20 发布日期:2012-08-20
  • 基金资助:
    国家社科基金重大项目(11&ZD154); 国家自然科学基金项目(40801061; 41130747; 41171140); 中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金项目(370003162001); 中山大学985 工程资助

Spatial-temporal Evolution of Rural Gentrification amidst Rapid Urbanization: A Case Study of Xiaozhou Village, Guangzhou

HE Shenjing1, QIAN Junxi2, XU Yuxuan1, LIU Bin3   

  1. 1. School of Geography and Planning, and Guangdong Key Laboratory for Urbanization and Geo-simulation, Sun Yat-Sen University; State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Building Science, Guangzhou China, Guangzhou 510275, China;
    2. Human Geography Research Group, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9XP, Scotland, UK;
    3. South China Sea Marine Engineering Survey and Environment Research Institute, State Ocean Administration, Guangzhou 510300, China
  • Received:2011-11-28 Revised:2012-03-16 Online:2012-08-20 Published:2012-08-20
  • Supported by:
    National Social Sciences Foundation Key Project, No.11&ZD154; National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40801061; No.41130747; No.41171140; The Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities, No.370003162001; Sun Yat-Sen University 985 Project

摘要: 乡村绅士化是指移民从城市迁入乡村地区, 通过对一定的经济资本的利用, 来达到对乡村的自然环境与独特的生活方式及文化氛围的体验与消费的过程。乡村绅士化过程造成了乡村地区人口结构的重构以及物质景观的变迁。本文选取广州小洲村作为研究案例, 对乡村绅士化的时空特征及其演变过程进行了深入分析。研究发现, 小洲村乡村绅士化过程分为艺术先锋绅士化及学生化两个阶段。由于空间需求、付租能力、群体数量等方面的差异, 两类绅士化过程对当地的物质环境、文化、社会、经济等方面产生了不同的影响。但两者的发展紧密相连, 在时间和空间上经历了延续、重叠、更替等阶段。乡村绅士化的过程, 在一定程度上缓解了乡村社区经济发展的困境, 也没有造成对本地居民的置换。但是随着社区住房成本的上涨, 先期迁入的艺术家群体正在被付租能力更强的学生群体逐渐替换。值得注意的是, 本地村民通过积极的寻租行为成为乡村绅士化的重要推动者, 而非被置换者。研究发现, 乡村绅士化现象的中西方差异主要体现在4 个方面:经济和物质层面的影响、与城市化的关系、人口置换的后果、绅士化的推动者。这些差异主要与乡村绅士化发展的社会经济背景、机制和特殊的土地政策等密切相关。这一研究对于探讨转型期中国乡村绅士化现象的特征与机制以及乡村社区发展的模式具有重要的理论与现实意义。

关键词: 乡村绅士化, 时空演变, 先锋艺术家, 艺术学生, 后农业时代, 寻租行为

Abstract: Rural gentrification refers to a process in which urban dwellers migrate to rural areas, in a pursuit of consuming the unique cultural ambience and a proximity to nature, with a certain degree of economic capital. It can be explained as the cause of multiple processes in the restructuring of local demographic structure and landscape changing. With special reference to the process of rural gentrification in Xiaozhou Village, Guangzhou, this paper explores the temporal-spatial characteristics of this process, as well as its evolvement alongside the changes in local socio-economic conditions. This paper reveals that there are two main processes in Xiaozhou's socio-spatial transformation, namely gentrification led by avant-garde artists and studentification led by incoming students. Owing to their different spatial demands, rental affordability, and magnitude, these two gentrification processes bring about different physical, cultural, social and economic influences to the local community. Yet, these two processes are tightly connected, and their socio-spatial evolvement experiences different stages of continuation, overlay, and displacement. While the avant-garde artists highlight the aesthetic values of the old architecture in the village, partially as a way to consume the symbolic meanings of rural space and rural landscape, the process of studentification places much more emphasis upon the use of newly built residential spaces and the development of housing spaces. In general, rural gentrification mitigates the economic predicament faced by Xiaozhou Village in a post-productivist era, and does not result in the displacement of indigenous villagers. However, the avant-garde artists are now facing displacement caused by rising housing costs due to the inflow of students. It is worth noting that, indigenous villagers are not the victims of rural gentrification, but become the promoters for the gentrification process through actively engaging in rent-seeking activities. This research also shows that, the differences of rural gentrification between China and Western countries mainly lie in four aspects, namely economic and physical impacts, the relationship between gentrification and urbanization, residential displacement, and driving forces of gentrification. These incongruences result from different socioeconomic background and dynamics of rural gentrification, as well as different land ownership and policies. Overall, this research is of theoretical and realistic significance in terms of examining the characteristics and dynamics of China's rural gentrification, and the unique development trajectory of China's rural community in an era of market transition.

Key words: rural gentrification, spatial-temporal evolution, advent-guard artists, art students, post-productivist era, rent-seeking