地理学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 67 ›› Issue (7): 929-940.doi: 10.11821/xb201207006

• 环境变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

近50 年来天山地区典型冰川厚度及储量变化

王璞玉1, 李忠勤1,2, 李慧林1, 吴利华3, 金爽1, 周平1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所冰冻圈科学国家重点实验室/天山冰川站, 兰州730000;
    2. 西北师范大学地理与环境科学学院, 兰州730070;
    3. 西南林业大学生态旅游学院, 昆明650224
  • 收稿日期:2012-02-24 修回日期:2012-04-13 出版日期:2012-07-20 发布日期:2012-10-11
  • 作者简介:王璞玉(1983-), 女, 助理研究员, 主要从事冰川变化与环境研究。E-mail: wangpuyu@lzb.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目(KZCX2-EW-311); 国家重点基础研究发展计划(973)项目(2010CB951003); 国家自然科学基金项目(91025012; 41001040; 41101066)

Changes of Ice-thickness and Volume for Representative Glaciers in Tianshan Mountains in the Past 50 Years

WANG Puyu1, LI Zhongqin1,2, LI Huilin1, WU Lihua3, JIN Shuang1, ZHOU Ping1   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Sciences/Tianshan Glaciological Station, Cold and Arid Region Environment and Engineering Research Institute, CAS, Lanzhou 730000, China;
    2. College of Geography and Environment Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China;
    3. Faculty of Ecotourism, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224, China
  • Received:2012-02-24 Revised:2012-04-13 Online:2012-07-20 Published:2012-10-11
  • Supported by:

    Knowledge Innovation Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.KZCX2-EW-311; National Basic Research Program of China, No.2010CB951003; National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.91025012, No.41001040; No.41101066

摘要: 冰川储量变化与冰川水资源量变化以及冰川对河川径流的贡献量密切相关。在GPR-3S技术支持下, 本研究基于雷达测厚数据、不同时期的高分辨率遥感影像、地形图及实测资料, 分析了天山三个典型地区四条代表性冰川近期厚度及储量变化特征, 并通过对比探讨了造成变化差异的可能原因。结果表明, 1962-2006 年乌鲁木齐河源1 号冰川厚度平均减薄0.15m a-1, 冰储量亏损26.2×106 m3, 冰川末端平均退缩3.8 m a-1;博格达峰南坡的黑沟8 号冰川在1986-2009 年间, 冰舌平均减薄0.57 m a-1, 冰储量损失了25.5×106 m3, 末端平均退缩11.0 m a-1;位于博格达峰北坡的四工河4 号冰川在1962-2009 年间冰舌平均减薄0.32 m a-1, 冰储量亏损14.0×106 m3, 末端平均后退8.0 m a-1;1964-2008 年间, 托木尔峰青冰滩72 号冰川冰舌平均减薄0.22 m a-1, 由此至少造成冰储量亏损14.1×106 m3, 末端退缩达40.0 m a-1。对比分析显示, 青冰滩72 号冰川消融退缩最为强烈, 黑沟8 号冰川次之, 与乌鲁木齐河源1 号冰川、科其喀尔冰川相差不大, 稍大于四工河4 号冰川和哈密庙尔沟冰川。这种差异可能与区域气候变化和冰川物理特征有直接关系。

关键词: 天山, 冰川变化, 冰川厚度, 冰川储量, 水资源

Abstract: Changes of glacier volume is directly related to glacial water resources and contribution of glacier changes to river runoff. With the support of GPR-3S technology, this paper studied ice-thickness and volume changes of the four typical glaciers in the three areas of Tianshan Mountains in recent years based on radar survey data, high-resolution remote sensing image, topographic maps and observation data. Furthermore, a comparison was made between the changes of these glaciers and the possible causes for the differences were analyzed. Results indicated that Urumqi Glacier No.1 underwent thinning of 0.15 m a-1 with the ice-volume loss of 26.2 × 106 m3 and retreated by 3.8 m a-1 during 1962-2006. During 1986-2009, the ice tongue of Heigou Glacier No.8 on the south slope of Mt. Bogda thinned by 0.57 m a-1, corresponding to the loss in ice-volume of 25.5×106 m3. At the same time, the terminus retreated by 11.0 m a-1. The ice-thickness of Glacier No.4 of Sigong River located on the north slope of Mt. Bogda decreased to 0.32 m a-1 with an ice-volume loss of 14.0×106 m3 over the period 1962-2009. The glacier terminus retreated by 11.0 m a-1 in the same period. For Qingbingtan Glacier No.72 in the Tomor region, the ice tongue thinned by 0.22 m a-1, corresponding to a loss of ice-volume of 14.1 × 106 m3 during 1964-2008. The glacier terminus retreated by 40.0 m a-1 in the same period. Results indicated that Qingbingtan Glacier No.72 retreated most intensively, followed by Heigou Glacier No.8, which differed slightly from Urumqi Glacier No.1 and Keqikaer Glacier. However, its changing magnitude was slightly larger than that of Glacier No.4 of Sigong River and Hami Miaoergou Glacier, indicating that such differences were directly influenced by regional climate change and physical features of glaciers.

Key words: Tianshan Mountains, glacier change, ice-thickness, ice-volume, water resources