地理学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 67 ›› Issue (6): 771-782.doi: 10.11821/xb201206005

• 农村发展与土地利用 • 上一篇    下一篇

黄淮海典型地区村域转型发展的特征与机理

李裕瑞1,2, 刘彦随1,2, 龙花楼1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京100101;
    2. 中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室, 北京100101
  • 收稿日期:2011-11-28 修回日期:2012-03-16 出版日期:2012-06-20 发布日期:2012-08-13
  • 通讯作者: 刘彦随(1965-), 男, 陕西绥德人, 研究员,博士生导师, 中国地理学会会员(S110005331M), 主要从事土地利用和农村发展研究。E-mail: liuys@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41130748; 41171149); 中国科学院知识创新工程项目(KZCX2-EW-304); 中国博士后科学基金一类资助项目(2011M500029)

Characteristics and Mechanism of Village Transformation Development in Typical Regions of Huang-Huai-Hai Plain

LI Yurui1,2, LIU Yansui1,2, LONG Hualou1,2   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2011-11-28 Revised:2012-03-16 Online:2012-06-20 Published:2012-08-13
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41171149; No.41130748; Knowledge Innovation Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. KZCX2-EW-304; China Postdoctoral Science Foundation, No.2011M500029

摘要: 村域是中国农村社会经济活动的基本单元,开展村域发展综合研究具有重要的理论和实践价值。本文基于对黄淮海平原3 个典型县区内5 个代表性村域在过去30 年的发展历程及影响因素的系统考察,探讨传统农区农业型村域转型发展的过程特征与内在机理。研究发现:① 在经济基础、人力资本和社会资本等内源性影响因素以及制度安排、市场需求和专业技术等外源性影响因素的综合作用下,案例村域大致经历了缓慢发展、逐渐起步、转型发展3 个阶段。② 案例村域转型发展过程的共性特征包括:重视民众参与;以能人为关键主体,着力实现内发动力与外发动力的统筹协调;日益重视抢占产业价值链的高附加值环节;创新是村域发展的力量源泉;战略、规划及行动力是村域发展的重要支撑;村域发展是一个自组织、网络化的动态过程。③ 其内在机理可归纳为:村民是村域发展的主体,能人是村域发展的核心因素,能人基于对村域自身资源禀赋、发展意愿、市场供需、政策导向、外域经验的洞察,着力激发内部动力、整合外部动力,共同构建协作组织、开展学习创新、制定发展战略、发展社会分工、参与市场竞争,切实推进村域自然—生态结构、技术—经济结构、制度—社会结构的优化,进而促进村域转型发展。在工业化、城镇化快速推进的新时期,为加速传统农区的村域转型发展和城乡一体化,应注重村域生产体系和城镇生产体系的要素融通、信息互享、产业融合、功能互补。

关键词: 村域转型发展, 动态过程, 影响因素, 共性特征, 内在机理, 黄淮海, 典型地区

Abstract: China's agriculture and rural development have made great achievements since the reform and open-door policy was initiated. However, it can be seen clearly that agricultural foundation of China is still weak, rural development is still lagging behind, and the increase of farmers' incomes is still unstable. Village is definitely the main battlefield of solving problems related to farmers, agriculture and rural areas (so called "San Nong Wen Ti" in Chinese) and building new countryside, so it is of great theoretical and practical value to carry out studies on the evolutionary process and dynamic mechanism of village development. This study aims to explore the evolutionary processes, common features and general mechanism of village development in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, a representative of China's traditional agricultural regions, based on systematic analysis of development history and mechanism of five villages in three counties with different types of rural development. The main contents and results were summed up as follows: (1) Factors that influence village development. Geographical location, economic basis, resource and environment endowments, social capital and human capital are internal influencing factors; macroeconomic environment, institutional arrangement, market demand, professional techniques and government support are external ones; accidental factors from interior or exterior village may catalyze, lubricate or block village development. (2) Common features of village development. Grassroots participation is the core concept and basic principles that should be adhered to during the course of village development; the integration of internal and external motivation is the objective needs of village development and rural elites play an important role during the process, in particular, they are usually the key actors of motivating and integrating the desire of internal and external participants; to seize high value-added part of value chain is the strategic orientation of village industrial development; innovation is one of the most important engines driving village development; strategy, planning and executive force are also vital supports for village development; and overall, village development is a dynamic process of self-organizing and network forming. (3) General mechanism of village development. Local villagers are the main body of village development, and rural elites are the core element. Based on a systematic insight into the local resources endowment, development willingness, market demand, government's policy orientation, external experiences and so on, the rural elites exert themselves to stimulate the internal motivation and integrate the external motivation, and then these actors jointly build the collaborative organization, learn for innovation, formulate development strategy, carry out division of labor and participate in market competition, so as to accelerate the optimization of local village's bio-physical structure, techno-economic structure and institutional-social structure, and as such the village may realize a transitional development. These findings may contribute to the theorizing of village transformation development in contemporary China and benefit local democratic decision-making, land consolidation and the development of high-benefit industrial agriculture in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain.

Key words: village transformation development, evolutionary process, influencing factor, common feature, general mechanism, the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, typical regions with different types of rural development