地理学报 ›› 2013, Vol. 68 ›› Issue (1): 82-94.doi: 10.11821/xb201301010

• 气候变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

1971-2009 年珠穆朗玛峰地区尼泊尔境内气候变化

祁威1,2, 张镱锂1, 高俊刚1, 杨续超3, 刘林山1, Narendra Raj KHANAL4   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京100101;
    2. 中国科学院大学, 北京100049;
    3. 浙江省气象科学研究所, 杭州310017;
    4. 尼泊尔特里布文大学地理学院, 尼泊尔加德满都
  • 收稿日期:2012-08-27 修回日期:2012-10-21 出版日期:2013-01-20 发布日期:2013-03-19
  • 通讯作者: 张镱锂(1962-),男,研究员,博导,中国地理学会会员(S110001007M)。E-mail:zhangyl@igsnrr.ac.cn E-mail:zhangyl@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:祁威(1987-),男,博士生,河北涿州人,从事山地与高原综合自然地理研究。E-mail:qiw.12b@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    全球变化研究国家重大科学研究计划(2010CB951704); 国家自然科学基金项目(40901057)

Climate change on southern slope of Mt. Qomolangma region in Nepal from 1971 to 2009

QI Wei1,2, ZHANG Yili1, GAO Jungang1, YANG Xuchao3, LIU Linshan1, Narendra R. KHANAL4   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
    3. Institute of Meteorology, Zhejiang Meteorological Bureau, Hangzhou 310017, China;
    4. Central Department of Geography, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal
  • Received:2012-08-27 Revised:2012-10-21 Online:2013-01-20 Published:2013-03-19
  • Supported by:

    The National Basic Research Program of China, No.2010CB951704; National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40901057

摘要: 利用珠穆朗玛峰南坡尼泊尔境内(科西河流域) 的10 个气象站1971-2009 年月平均气温、月平均最高、最低气温和逐月降水资料, 采用线性趋势、Sen 斜率估计、Mann-Kendall 等方法分析区域气候变化状况及其时空特征, 并与珠穆朗玛峰北坡地区气候进行比较, 分析了珠穆朗玛峰地区气候变化的特征与趋势。结果表明:(1) 1971-2009 年间, 珠穆朗玛峰南坡年平均气温为20.0℃, 线性升温率为0.25℃/10a, 与北坡主要受年平均最低气温影响相反, 增幅主要受年平均最高气温升高的影响, 并且在1974 年及1992 年间出现两次显著增温, 增温特别明显的月份为2 月和9 月;(2) 该地区降水变化的局地性较强, 近40 年间年平均降水量为1729.01 mm, 年平均降水量以每年约4.27 mm的线性增幅有所增加, 但并不显著, 且降水月变化和季变化特征均不明显;(3) 由于珠穆朗玛峰南坡受到季风带来暖湿气流和喜马拉雅山阻挡的双重影响, 珠峰南坡的年平均降水量远高于北坡;(4) 珠穆朗玛峰南坡气温变暖的海拔依赖性并不明显, 且南坡地区的变暖趋势并没有北坡变暖趋势明显。

关键词: 气候变化, Mann-Kendall分析, 珠穆朗玛峰地区, 科西河流域, 尼泊尔

Abstract: Based on monthly mean, maximum, minimum air temperature and monthly mean precipitation data from 10 meteorological stations on the southern slope of Mt. Qomolangma region in Nepal from 1971 to 2009, using climatic linear trend, Sen's Slope Estimates and Mann-Kendall Test analysis methods, this paper analyzed the spatial-temporal characteristics of climatic change in this region. It also made an comparative analysis with the northern slope of Mt. Qomoangma region to clarify the characteristics and trend of climatic change in the entire Mt. Qomoangma region. The results are shown as follows. (1) The annual mean temperature in this region during the period 1971-2009 was 20.0℃, and the rising rate of annual mean temperature was 0.25℃/10a. The temperature increase was mainly due to the maximum temperature rise in this region. On the contrary, the temperature increase of the northern slope of Mt. Qomoangma region was mainly owing to the minimum temperature rise. In 1974 and 1992, the temperature rose significantly, especially in February and September. (2) The precipitation had an asymmetric distribution; the annual precipitation was 1729.01 mm from 1971 to 2009. In this region the annual precipitation had an increasing rate of 4.27 mm/a, but it was not significant. Besides, the characteristic change of monthly or seasonal precipitation was not significant. (3) The annual precipitation in this region was more than that of the northern slope of Mt. Qomoangma region as the result of the combined influences of warm-wet flow and the Mt. Qomoangma barrier. (4) The dependence of climate warming on altitude is not significant in this region where the trend of climate warming is not as significant as that on the northern slope of Mt. Qomoangma.

Key words: climate change, Mann-Kendall analysis, Mt. Qomoangma region, Koshi River, Nepal