地理学报 ›› 2009, Vol. 64 ›› Issue (4): 426-434.doi: 10.11821/xb200904005

• 城乡发展与旅游地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国东部沿海地区乡村发展类型及其乡村性评价

龙花楼1, 刘彦随1, 邹健1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京100101;
    2. 中国科学院研究生院, 北京100049
  • 收稿日期:2008-10-01 修回日期:2009-03-06 出版日期:2009-04-25 发布日期:2010-08-03
  • 作者简介:龙花楼(1971-), 男, 湖南醴陵人, 博士, 副研究员, 中国地理学会会员(S110001545M), 中国地理学会农业地 理与乡村发展专业委员会秘书长, 主要从事土地利用与乡村发展研究。E-mail: longhl@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40635029; 40771014) ;中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所创新三期领域前沿项目

Assessment of Rural Development Types and Their Rurality in Eastern Coastal China

LONG Hualou1, LIU Yansui1, ZOU Jian1,2   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2008-10-01 Revised:2009-03-06 Online:2009-04-25 Published:2010-08-03
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40635029; No.40771014; Knowledge Innovation Project of IGSNRR, CAS

摘要:

在界定农业主导、工业主导、商旅服务和均衡发展四个乡村发展类型的基础上, 对中 国东部沿海地区的乡村发展类型进行了划分。基于乡村对社会具有的功能构建了乡村性指数 (RI) 以刻划不同发展类型的乡村性强弱, 并对东部沿海地区各发展类型的乡村性进行了评价。 结果表明: 东部沿海地区57.6%的县市一、二、三产业得到均衡发展;农业主导、工业主导 和商旅服务业主导的发展地域类型分别占总面积的18.64%、11.99%和11.75%;农业主导乡 村发展类型中乡村性较强(RI > 0.5) 的地域占到59.1%;工业主导乡村发展类型中乡村性弱 (RI < 0.4) 和居中(0.4 < RI < 0.5) 的地域分别占到33.4%和42.8%;商旅服务业为主导的乡村 发展类型中, 大部分地域(42.7%) 乡村性弱, 乡村性强和居中的地域分别占到27.3%和 30.0%;均衡发展类型中乡村性弱的地域占17.2%, 乡村性较强的地域占到37%, 接近半数 (45.8%) 的均衡发展类型其乡村性居中。并指出, 当今全球化和社会经济重构背景下乡村的多 功能性发展和立足当地(Place-Based) 的乡村发展模式, 使得某些县域的乡村性指数值与其他 同类地区差异较大, 以及同一乡村性指数值可能对应不同的乡村发展类型。最后提出了中国 农业与乡村地理学科领域亟需加强研究的方向和内容。

关键词: 乡村重构, 乡村发展类型, 乡村性指数, 中国东部沿海地

Abstract:

Currently, both rural development and urban development in China are experiencing a transition period. the transformation of a traditional agricultural society into a modern industrial and urban society, and the economy is changing from a traditional planned economy to a modern market system. As a result, regional development factors reintegration and followed industrial restructuring have changed the rural areas in eastern coastal China deeply. Different rural development types were shaped basing on a carrier, which is composed of different industries. Accordingly, this paper defines four rural development types, i.e. agriculture-dominated rural development type, industry-dominated rural development type, balanced rural development type, and rural development type focusing on business, tourism and providing services, and classifies the rural development types in eastern coastal China. Then, an indicator system was established to assess the rurality index (RI) of different rural development types in eastern coastal China. The results showed: (1) Relying on the advantages of location and national lean policies, 57.6% of the total territory of eastern coastal China belongs to balanced rural development type, and 18.64%, 11.99% and 11.75% of the total area is shared by agriculture-dominated rural development type, industry-dominated rural development type, and rural development type focusing on business, tourism and providing services, respectively; (2) 59.1% of the agriculture-dominated rural development type shows a strong rurality (RI > 0.5); (3) In the industry-dominated rural development type, the area with a weak rurality (RI < 0.4) and a moderate rurality (0.4 < RI < 0.5) takes up 33.4% and 42.8%, respectively; (4) In the rural development type focusing on business, tourism and providing services, the area with weak, strong and moderate rurality shares 42.7%, 27.3% and 30.0% of the total, respectively; (5) Almost half (45.8%) of the balanced rural development type with a moderate rurality, 17.2% of this type with a weak rurality, and 37% with a strong rurality. In some cases, the big difference of rurality index value among the same development types is due to the development of multi-functionality of current countryside and place-based rural development mode under globalization and socio-economic restructuring. Rural development depends on the change of its influencing factors. So, the rural development types classified in this paper can not always keep the same situation, at least the quantitative change occurs momently.

Key words: rural restructuring, rural development type, rurality index, eastern coastal Chin