地理学报 ›› 2000, Vol. 67 ›› Issue (1): 15-24.doi: 10.11821/xb200001002

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于GIS的洪水灾害风险区划研究

周成虎, 万庆, 黄诗峰, 陈德清   

  1. 中国科学院资源与环境信息系统国家重点实验室,北京100101
  • 收稿日期:1999-10-07 修回日期:1999-11-20 出版日期:2000-01-15 发布日期:2000-01-15
  • 基金资助:
    国家“九五”攻关项目 (96-B02-02-02)

A GIS-based Approach to Flood Risk Zonation

ZHOU Cheng hu, WAN Qing, HUANG Shi feng, CHEN De qing   

  1. State key Laboratory of Resources and Environment Information System, China Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
  • Received:1999-10-07 Revised:1999-11-20 Online:2000-01-15 Published:2000-01-15
  • Supported by:
    The key projdct of National Ninth Five Year Plan,No.96-B02-02-02

摘要: 洪水灾害风险区划是洪灾评估与管理的重要内容,本文在分析洪灾形成的各主要因子的基础上,提出了基于地理信息系统的洪灾风险区划指标模型,并结合辽河流域具体情况,以降雨、地形和区域社会经济易损为主要指标,得出辽河流域洪灾风险综合区划。

关键词: 地理信息系统, 洪水灾害, 风险区划

Abstract: Flood risk can, in general terms, be defined as probability time consequence. It consists of flood hazard analysis, vulnerability analysis and damage evaluation. A variety of methods have been developed and applied. Among them, Quantitative Risk Analysis (QRA) is a method of quantifying risk through systematic examination of the factors contributing to the flood hazard and affecting the severity of flood consequence, their interaction and relative contribution to the occurrence of the flood. The QRA technique is well established in many fields such as chemical engineering and hazardous materials processing. The application of QRA to flood risk is relatively new and still under development. While the basic risk assessment concepts and tools can be used, the methodologies need to be adapted. Category-based model for flood risk analysis is used to assign a value to each driven-factor such as triggering factor of rainfall, dam break, ground surface conditions of topography, land cover, and others. The keys to the model are to synthesis the spatial-referenced data and create the risk zone. The diffusion of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) technology opens up a range of new possibilities for hazard mitigation and disaster management. Microzonation is greatly facilitated by the kind of automation that GIS offers, especially as it involves comparison, indices and overlays in much the same way that GIS does. In this article, ArcInfo GIS has been chosen to quantitatively represent the influencing factors, spatialize the data into the uniform grid system, and transfer all the data item into the effect degrees on the probability of flooding. At last, with the support of Arc/Info GRID model, a categorical model for flood risk zonation has been put forward. The approach has been applied to the Liaohe river basin, the north-eastern of China, flood disaster risk zonation. The results show that the flood risk of the lower reaches of the Liaohe river is more serious than other places, which accord with the fact. The case study showes that the GIS-based category model is effective in flood risk zonation.

Key words: Geographical Information System, Flood hazard, Risk zonation

中图分类号: 

  • P694