地理学报 ›› 1999, Vol. 54 ›› Issue (2): 150-157.doi: 10.11821/xb199902007

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

清代北京城市郊区行政界线探索

韩光辉   

  1. 北京大学城市与环境学系,北京100871
  • 收稿日期:1996-04-16 修回日期:1996-10-27 出版日期:1999-03-15 发布日期:1999-03-15
  • 基金资助:
    国家社科基金

ADMINISTRATIVE BOUNDARIES OF SUBURBAN BEIJING DURING THE QING DYNASTY

Han Guanghui   

  1. Department of Geography, Beijing University, Beijing 100871
  • Received:1996-04-16 Revised:1996-10-27 Online:1999-03-15 Published:1999-03-15
  • Supported by:
    Supported by the key project of national social sciences from 1990 to 1995

摘要: 城市郊区是行政上隶属于城市的城市外围地区,是兼有城市和田园双重职能与景观特色的过渡地带,是城市的重要组成部分;又是城市发展到一定历史阶段的产物,在城市发展史上占有重要地位。北京城市郊区清代称为城属,其行政边界划定于雍正中。但这条行政界线的具体走向却长期存在歧异认识,实有必要予以考察。为此,本文系统考察了清代北京城市城属行政边界的大体走向,进而阐述了清雍正中勘定京师城属外部行政边界的意义。

关键词: 行政边界, 北京郊区, 巡捕营汛, 清代

Abstract: Suburbs are a transitional zone between city and country with the characteristics of both. Peripheral to and administered by a city, suburbs have nonetheless always been an important part of cities. Historically they represent an important stage in the development of cities. During the Qing Dynasty (1644~1911), the suburbs of Beijing were known as chengshu (literally, “belonging to the city”) whose administrative boundaries were demarcated during the mid Yongzheng reign (1723~1735). But because of inconsistent historical records, scholarly views regarding the locations of the boundaries have long differed. Using information and maps on Beijing’s suburbs recorded in the local gazetteers compiled during the Qing, this study first ascertains that Beijing’s chengshu were indeed its suburbs. After raising questions concerning the areal extent and the boundaries of chengshu recorded in documents, the approximate outer boundary of Beijing’s chengshu is identified by relying on the data from the imperial edicts of Emperor Yongzheng. The edicts provide information on the city’s garrison and police district that corresponded to the city’s suburban area. This boundary was stable until the Republican period (1911~1949). The significance and function of the boundary are then discussed. Whereas China’s administrative systems and regional divisions appeared quite early in history, regional divisions at different administrative levels were usually controlled by long and customary traditions without any clearly defined legal boundaries. For example, during the Sui (581~618) and the Tang (618~907) Dynasties, administrative regions known as sizhi badao (literally, “four reaches and eight arrivals”, referring to the four cardinal directions plus the additional subdirections of northeast, southeast, southwest and northwest), were merely very general administrative areas of different levels without any rigid administrative boundaries. The Qing more clearly demarcated the boundaries at different administrative levels to maintain border peace and for better social control, including the delimitation of Beijing’s suburban boundaries. In the history of urban growth in China and elsewhere, this development is important. After their boundary had been delimited, the suburbs of Beijing provided space for the Manchu Bannermen to concentrate in who had come from the city, for the construction of imperial gardens and villas, and for the development of handicraft industry, trade and services.

Key words: suburbs, Beijing, administrative boundary, garrison and police, district, Qing Dynasty

中图分类号: 

  • K928.6