地理学报 ›› 1998, Vol. 65 ›› Issue (4): 314-322.doi: 10.11821/xb199804003

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

长江与黄河沉积物金属元素地球化学特征及其比较

张朝生1, 章申2, 王立军2, 王丽珍2   

  • 收稿日期:1996-07-01 修回日期:1997-12-01 出版日期:1998-07-15 发布日期:1998-07-15
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金,编号49601016;中国科学院“百人计划”资助项目

GEOCHEMISTRY OF METALS IN SEDIMENTS FROM CHANGJIANG RIVER AND HUANGHE RIVER AND THEIR COMPARISON

Zhang Chaosheng1, Zhang Shen2, Wang Lijun2, Wang Lizhen2   

  1. Institute of Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
  • Received:1996-07-01 Revised:1997-12-01 Online:1998-07-15 Published:1998-07-15
  • Supported by:
    Under the auspices of National Natural Science Foundation of China and the“One-hundred-person Plan”of Chinese Academy of Sciences

摘要: 研究了长江干流和黄河干流沉积物中金属元素(Li,Na,K,Ca,Sr,Ba,Ti,V,Cr,Mn,Fe,Co,Ni,Cu,Zn,Al等共16种)总量与形态特征。结果表明:元素含量和形态特征沿河变化不明显;长江沉积物中易迁移元素与难迁移元素间有负相关关系,而在黄河沉积物中表现不显着;与黄河相比,长江沉积物中易迁移元素含量低,而重金属含量高;元素有机态和铁锰氧化物态含量高,而残渣态含量低。这种差异与长江流域内风化作用强,而黄河流域内风化作用弱,以及黄土母质有机质含量低有关。

关键词: 长江, 黄河, 沉积物, 金属, 地球化学, 形态

Abstract: The Changjiang River and the Huanghe River are the two longest rivers in China. The differences between them, such as climatic conditions and bedrock compositions, have caused the differences of metal geochemistry in their sediments. Therefore, sediment samples were taken from the mainstreams of the rivers, and the total contents and speciation of 16 metals (Li,Na,K,Ca,Sr,Ba,Ti,V,Cr,Mn,Fe,Co,Ni,Cu,Zn and Al) have been analyzed, in order to reveal their differences and the relationships in the geographical and geological conditions. Eleven sediment samples were taken from the Changjiang River and other ten samples were from the Hanghe River. The speciation method was after Tessier et al., and five forms of metals were fractionated: ① exchangeable, ② carbonate, ③organic, ④ Fe/Mn oxide, and ⑤ residual. Total contents and contents of the five forms were detected by ICP AES. The total contents of metals in the two rivers are consistent with their crustal abundances. The coefficients of variances of all the elements under study are quite small, which is caused by the transportation and dispersion processes of sediments along the mainstreams. Mobile elements, such as Na, Sr, and Ca, have significantly negative correlations with the immobile elements in sediments of the Changjiang River which is caused by the strong weathering forces inside the watershed. By the weathering forces, mobile elements are removed from the sediments, and immobile elements are relatively enriched. However, such a kind of relationship has been weakened in the Huanghe River due to the relatively poor weathering forces. Ca and Mn have the lowest percentages of the residual form in both rivers, while the other elements have rather high contents of the residual form. The significant differences between the two rivers have also been revealed by the speciation study. The residual forms of most of the metals have lower percentages in the Changjiang River than those in the Huanghe River. However, the non residual forms of the metals in the sediments of the Changjiang River tend to reside in the Fe/Mn oxide and organic forms. These results are also in line with the stronger weathering forces in the Changjiang River watershed than those in the Huanghe River area. The sediments in the Huanghe River mainly consist of loess, and the loess contains quite little organic matter, which is another reason for the low contents of organic forms of metals in sediments of the Huanghe River.

Key words: Changjiang River, Huanghe River, sediments, metals, geochemistry, speciation

中图分类号: 

  • P595