地理学报 ›› 1985, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (3): 225-231.doi: 10.11821/xb198503004

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

青藏高原哺乳动物地理分布特征及区系演变

张荣祖1, 郑昌琳2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理研究所;
    2. 中国科学院西北高原生物研究所
  • 出版日期:1985-07-15 发布日期:1985-07-15

THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF MAMMALS AND THE EVOLUTION OF MAMMALIAN FAUNA IN QINGYAI-XIZANG PLATEAU

Zhang Yongzu1, Zheng Changlin 2   

  1. 1. Institute of Geography Academia Sinica;
    2. Northwest Plateau Institute of Biology, Academia Sinica
  • Online:1985-07-15 Published:1985-07-15

摘要: 动物地理学的研究,早已明确第四纪以来欧亚大陆发生过数次冰期,大量第三纪喜暖动物,总的趋势是向南部撤退或被消灭。同时,一些适应于冰缘地带的喜寒种类在北方形成,动物区系产生古北界与东洋界的分化。

关键词: 青藏高原, 区系演变, 哺乳动物, 地理分布特征, 东洋界, 古北界, 动物区系, 喜马拉雅山脉, 横断山脉, 间断分布

Abstract: According to recent estimates, the mammalian fauna of the plateau and the surrounding mountains comprises more than 190 species, the majority of which may be assorted into 7 main distributional types and 21 subtypes. The distributional patterns reflect that the plateau proper forms an important obstacle to the spread of the Oriental species. Only in the Hengduan Mountains do they penetrate along the valleys into the southeastern margin of the plateau. On the contrary, the Palaearctic and Centro-Asia-tic elements spread over the plateau in different extents under conditions similar to those of the boreal population.The climatic deterioration occurred in the ice age of the Pleistocene has induced the migration of animals far southwards as a whole in Eurasia. While on the plateau, during the course of upheavel, the migration of animals as a consequence of the retreat of forests was from the interior to the southeastern margin, or rather from the higher to the lower elevations of the mountains.The changes of fauna caused by the upheaval of the plateau can be concluded as follows:1. The forest-living animals and thermorohilic elements retreated to the southeastern margin or to lower altitudes of the pateau;2. The steppe and desert and periglacial fauna invaded the plateau from central and northern Asia;3. Some indigenous and cryophillic species evolved on the plateau proper;4. Faunal composition differs in the east and the west margins of the plateau.