地理学报 ›› 2013, Vol. 68 ›› Issue (5): 661-679.doi: 10.11821/xb201305008

• 地貌与第四纪 • 上一篇    下一篇

新疆地区沙漠形成与演化的古环境证据

朱秉启1, 于静洁1, 秦晓光2, 刘子亭2, 熊黑钢3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所陆地水循环及地表过程重点实验室, 北京 100101;
    2. 中国科学院地质与地球物理研究所新生代地质与环境重点实验室, 北京 100029;
    3. 教育部新疆绿洲生态重点实验室, 乌鲁木齐 830046
  • 收稿日期:2012-12-24 修回日期:2013-02-08 出版日期:2013-05-20 发布日期:2013-07-22
  • 作者简介:朱秉启(1976- ), 博士, 安徽人, 研究方向为干旱区地表过程与第四纪环境演化。E-mail: zhubingqi@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家重点基础研究发展计划项目(973项目)(2009CB421305);国家自然科学基金项目(91025023;40901059;41271049)

Formation and evolution of sandy deserts in Xinjiang:The palaeo-environmental evidences

ZHU Bingqi1, YU Jingjie1, QIN Xiaoguang2, LIU Ziting2, XIONG Heigang3   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Key Laboratory of Cenozoic Geology and Environment, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, CAS, Beijing 100029, China;
    3. Key Laboratory of Oasis Ecology, Ministry of Education, Urumqi 830046, China
  • Received:2012-12-24 Revised:2013-02-08 Online:2013-05-20 Published:2013-07-22
  • Supported by:

    National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program), No.2009CB421305; National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.91025023; No.40901059; No.41271049

摘要: 通过回顾新疆沙漠形成演化过程的研究与进展,指出新疆构造地貌特征使塔里木和准噶尔两大盆地区域受行星系西风、海陆季风或地形山谷风等的焚风效应的影响,第四纪以来的气候环境格局总体表现为持续的干旱化过程并伴随次级规模的波动过程;盆地及其边缘风成沉积的形成,是对青藏高原隆升引起的全球气候环境变化尤其是亚洲内陆干旱化的响应。在塔克拉玛干沙漠的形成时代上,由于研究方法、对象和信息载体的不同,目前存在较多争议;来自沙漠边缘及腹地的古风成沉积及其年代学证据指示塔里木盆地边缘或腹地在第三纪时即已存在干旱性的气候和地表的风营力过程;但在沉积规模和连续性上,它们的存在是否代表大范围沙丘地乃至古塔克拉玛干沙漠的出现以及其后是否与现今规模的塔克拉玛干沙漠有继承关系,需要进一步的研究来解释。来自沙漠外围昆仑山北坡和天山北坡的风成黄土沉积表明现代规模的塔克拉玛干和古尔班通古特沙漠都是在中更新世以后形成的,并在末次冰期时经历了显著的气候变化,但不同区域有不同的干湿波动过程。

关键词: 沙漠, 古气候, 第四纪, 风成沉积, 新疆

Abstract: Based on the palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental evidences of geological history and human history periods, this paper reviews the researches and progresses on the development of the sandy deserts in Xinjiang. It points out that under the tectonic conditions, the Tarim and Zhungarer basins are greatly influenced by the foehn effects originated from the planetary wind system of westerly, the East-Asia ocean-continental monsoon and the topographical mountain-valley winds. The regional patterns of climate and environment since the Quaternary have been characterized by the overall persistent drought accompanied by fluctuations in the secondary scale. Formations of aeolian sediments in the basins and at the margins are a potential response to global climate change, particularly to the aridification of the Asian hinterland deduced by the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding highlands. For the question about the formation time of the Taklimakan Desert, because the research methods, objects and information carriers used in previous studies are different, there are many disputes in the academic circles at present. Evidences from aeolian deposits/rocks at the edge and in the hinterland of these sandy deserts and their chronological data indicate that arid climate and land surface aeolian processes have been observed at the edge of the Tarim Basin and its hinterland areas since the Tertiary period.

Key words: sandy desert, palaeo-climate, Late Quaternary, aeolian sediment, Xinjiang