地理学报 ›› 2011, Vol. 66 ›› Issue (7): 940-952.doi: 10.11821/xb201107007

• 土壤与水文 • 上一篇    下一篇

东北黑土区主要黑土土种的容许土壤流失量

谢云1, 段兴武1,2, 刘宝元1, 刘刚1, 冯艳杰1, 高晓飞1   

  1. 1. 北京师范大学地表过程与资源生态国家重点实验室,地理学与遥感科学学院,北京 100875;
    2. 云南大学亚洲国际河流中心,昆明 650091
  • 收稿日期:2011-02-27 修回日期:2011-05-23 出版日期:2011-07-20 发布日期:2011-09-07
  • 作者简介:谢云, 女, 教授, 博士生导师, 中国地理学会会员(S110001115M), 研究方向为气候与土地生产力。E-mail: xieyun@bnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40671111); 水利部公益性行业科研专项经费项目(2010332030)

Soil Loss Tolerance for Black Soil Species in Northeast China

XIE Yun1, DUAN Xingwu1,2, LIU Baoyuan1, LIU Gang1, FENG Yanjie1, Gao Xiaofei1   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China;
    2. Asian International Rivers Center, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, China
  • Received:2011-02-27 Revised:2011-05-23 Online:2011-07-20 Published:2011-09-07
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation, No.40671111; Nonprofit Sector Special Funds of the Ministry of Water Resources, No.2010332030

摘要: 容许土壤流失量(T 值) 是进行水土流失治理的定量标准,目前以专家经验确定为主,缺乏定量研究。本文以我国重要的粮食生产基地东北黑土区为研究区,实地调查区内21 个黑土土种典型剖面的厚度,采集分层土壤样品测定理化性质后,利用修订的生产力指数模型计算了21 个土种的T值,并分析其影响因素。结果显示:21 个土种的T值变化于68~358 t/km2×a,平均141 t/km2×a。按亚类T 值为白浆化黑土(漂白滞水湿润均腐土) 106 t/km2×a,黑土(简育湿润均腐土)129 t/km2×a,草甸黑土(斑纹简育湿润均腐土) 为184 t/km2×a。土壤厚度和土壤侵蚀脆弱性指数是影响T值的主要因素,它们与T值的相关系数分别为0.750 和0.605。草甸黑土厚度明显高于其它两个土壤亚类,脆弱性指数与黑土接近,其T值较黑土T值大42.6%。白浆化黑土厚度较黑土厚度大22.1%,但T值却比黑土T值小21.7%,因为白浆化黑土有明显的障碍层存在。因此确定不同土种或亚类的T值,更能反映土壤剖面特性,对于指导水土流失治理更具实际意义。

关键词: 容许土壤流失量, 生产力指数, 土壤侵蚀脆弱性指数, 成土速率, 东北黑土区

Abstract: Soil Loss Tolerance (T) is a quantitative criterion for soil conservation, and it is determined empirically at present due to limited quantitative researches. The black soil region of Northeast China, one of the major grain production bases in China, was selected as the study area. Soil depths were investigated and physicochemical properties of soil profiles were analyzed for 21 black soil species in the study area. T values of the 21 black soil species, calculated by using a modified productivity index model, varied from 68 t/km2×a to 358 t/km2×a, and 141 t/km2 × a in average, and 106 t/km2 × a for albic black soils (Albic Stagni-Udic Isohumosols), 129 t/km2 × a for black soils (Hapli-Udic Isohumosols), and 184 t/km2 × a for meadow black soils (Mottlic Hapli-Udic Isohumosols). Soil depths and soil erosion vulnerability index were two key factors influencing T values. The correlation coefficients of these two factors with T were 0.750 and 0.605 repectively. The meadow black soils had the largest soil depth and similar erosion vulnerability index close to that of black soils, and its T value was 42.6% larger than that of black soils. The soil depth of Albic black soils was 22.1% larger than that of black soils, and its T value was 21.7% smaller than that of black soils. This is due to the existence of obstacle horizon for Albic black soils. Therefore, determination of T values for different soil species or families is more practical for soil conservation in terms of soil profile properties.

Key words: soil loss tolerance, productivity index, soil erosion vulnerability index, soil formation rate, the black soil region of Northeast China