地理学报 ›› 2003, Vol. 58 ›› Issue (4): 598-605.doi: 10.11821/xb200304015

• 气候变化及其影响 • 上一篇    下一篇

古尔班通古特沙漠短命植物分布 及其沙面稳定意义

王雪芹1,2, 1, 蒋进1, 雷加强2, 张伟民1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所,乌鲁木齐 830011
    2. 中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所,兰州 730000
  • 收稿日期:2002-10-22 修回日期:2003-01-28 出版日期:2003-07-25 发布日期:2010-09-09
  • 作者简介:王雪芹 (1964-), 女, 新疆昌吉人, 在职博士研究生, 主要从事风沙地貌、荒漠化及防治方面的研究. Tel: (0991)8953751 E-mail: oasis@ms.xjb.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家重点基础研究发展规划项目 (G1999043504); 中科院西部人才培养计划“西部之光”项目 (20032057)

The Distribution of Ephemeral Vegetation on the Longitudinal Dune Surface and Its Stabilization Significance in the Gurbantunggut Desert

WANG Xueqin1,2, JIANG Jin1, LEI Jiaqiang1, ZHANG Weimin2, QIAN Yibing1   

  1. 1. Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, CAS, Urumqi 830011, China;
    2. Cold and Arid Regions Environment and Engineering Research Institute, CAS, Lanzhou 730000, China
  • Received:2002-10-22 Revised:2003-01-28 Online:2003-07-25 Published:2010-09-09
  • Supported by:

    National Key Project for Basic Science Research, No.G1999043504; The Project of Talents Training, CAS, No.20032057

摘要:

从植被稳定沙面的角度出发,通过2002年对古尔班通古特沙漠南部沙垄表面植物种类、高度和盖度等的系统监测,阐明短命植物在单个沙丘上的时空分布规律。并对气象资料和人类活动扰动沙面后短命植物的自然侵入等进行综合分析,探讨沙面稳定中短命植物的重要作用。研究区总计有45种植物,其中短命植物29种。4月初短命植物萌动出土,在两个月左右的时间完成整个生长发育过程。4、5、6三个月正是北疆沙漠风沙活动强盛期,大部分沙垄表面乔灌木和长营养期草本植物盖度不足10%,而短命植物盖度则分别达到13.9%、40.2% 和14.1%,是古尔班通古特沙漠植被稳定沙面的主要贡献者。对工程行为扰动沙面后的植物恢复调查显示,短命植物是首先入侵的先锋植物。

关键词: 短命植物, 时空分布, 沙面稳定意义, 古尔班通古特沙漠

Abstract:

Field surveys of vegetation were conducted in the southern area of the Gurbantunggut Desert from March to August 2002. Vegetation cover was measured using 6 quadrats at different geomorphic positions on the longitudinal dune. Species numbers, coverage and growth of plants were recorded. Distributions of ephemerals on the dune surface were obtained, and the stabilization significance of the distribution ephemerals on the longitudinal dune surface in Gurbantunggut Desert was discussed. Threshold wind data from the Cainan meteorological station covering 1994 to 1995 were also analysed. A total of 45 species were recorded at the study site, of which 29 species were ephemerals. They formed special spring synusiae communities, of which Alyssum linifolium and Erodium oxyrrhynehum were the dominant species. At the peak of the ephemeral growth cycle most of the above-mentioned ground biomass was measured between surface level and a height of 30 cm, and root density was the greatest, ranging between 0 and 30 cm. The temporal and spatial distributions of ephemerals are unique. Their germination period is from late March to early April. Most of the ephemerals end their life-cycle according to climatic conditions. This usually occurs sometime between the last 10 days of June and the first 10 days of July. The average coverage of ephemerals on the interdune corridor and the two plinths reached 13.9% in March, 40.2% in April and 14.1% in June. Ephemeral coverage also varied in different zones of the dune. Spring coverage was 40.2% on the interdune, 44.9% on the plinth and 4.4% on the crest.

Key words: ephemerals, temporo-spatial distribution, longitudinal dune, stabilization significance, Gurbantunggut Desert