地理学报 ›› 2002, Vol. 57 ›› Issue (3): 293-300.doi: 10.11821/xb200203005

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

湘桂黔滇藏红色岩溶风化壳发育模式

李德文1, 崔之久2, 刘耕年2   

  1. 1. 南京大学城市与资源学系, 南京 210093;
    2. 北京大学城市与环境学系, 北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2001-06-04 修回日期:2001-09-26 出版日期:2002-05-25 发布日期:2010-09-06
  • 作者简介:李德文 (1969-), 博士后, 地貌与第四纪地质专业, 主要从事气候地貌学及相关领域的研究。 E-mail:lidewen@263.net
  • 基金资助:

    国家重点基础研究发展规划(G1998040800);中科院青藏高原研究项目 (KZ951-A1-204; KZ95T-06) 及中国博士后科学基金

A Development Model of Red Weathering Crust on Limestones: an Example from Hunan, Guangxi, Guizhou, Yunnan and Tibet

LI Dewen1, CUI Zhijiu2, LIU Gengnian2   

  1. 1. Department of Geography, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China;
    2. Department of Geography, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2001-06-04 Revised:2001-09-26 Online:2002-05-25 Published:2010-09-06
  • Supported by:

    National Key Project for Basic Research, No.G1998040800); CAS Project for Tibetan Research, No.KZ951-A1-204; No.KZ95T-06; China Postdoctoral Science Foundation

摘要:

基于对湘、桂、黔、滇、藏等地岩溶区红色风化壳的野外和室内研究, 从表生地貌学、粘土矿物学和地球化学的角度分析红色石灰土性质与地貌演化的关系, 提出红色岩溶风化壳发育的二阶段模式: 1) 地貌夷平-风化物质积累阶段,在地貌演化过程中溶蚀残余物质不断积累, 最后在夷平面上形成厚层连续的泥质风化壳。夷平面的地貌水文条件有利于粘粒的形成和保存, 但限制了富铝化作用的有效进行, 造就了岩溶风化壳粘粒含量高、富铝化程度低的特点。这与研究区23个红色岩溶风化壳剖面化学、粒度特征和粘土矿物组合特点是一致的。 2) 地貌切割-风化壳淋溶阶段,原始夷平面上的风化壳大多呈灰色。只有在构造隆升和地表微切割导致地下水位降低、淋溶条件开始改善的情况下, 风化壳才有可能从根本上转为红色。

关键词: 红色岩溶风化壳, 二阶段发育模式, 夷平面, 构造隆升, 青藏高原, 云贵高原

Abstract:

Based on research results of red weathering curst on limestones (WCL) in Hunan, Guangxi, Guizhou, Yunnan and Tibet, the authors analysed the relationship of red WCL and evolution of landforms using principles of geomorphology, clay mineralogy and geochemistry, and put forward a two-stage development model. Firstly, insoluble residual of carbonates have been cumulated in the later stage of geographical cycle and WCL was formed on planation surface (PS). This is called stage of lowering of landform and accumulation of residual or stage of planation and crustal formation. The gentle relief and backwater, derived from PS (in humid tropical), is available for the formation and preservation of clays (argilication), but restricts WCL to effective allitication. This accords with the characters of WCL in the study areas (including chemical composition and mineralogical assemblage of clays and granularity of 23 profiles). The second stage of the above model is incision of landform and allitication of WCL or incision-erubescence. The initial WCL located on PS is mainly gray due to reductive circumstance. WCL will have changed from gray (reductive) to red (oxidative) if only tectonic uplift and incision of rivers lower groundwater table, and geomorphologic and hydrogeological (hydrological) conditions have promoted to allitication. This is confirmed using material of field investigations. The WCL on the initial PS, such as Hunan and Guangxi, is mainly gray-color and those on the uplifted plateau, such as Yunnan-Guizhou and Tibetan plateaus, is red. In addition, red WCL is spatially located on PS.

Key words: red weathering crust on limestones, development model of two-stage, planation surface, tectonic uplift, Tibetan Plateau, Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau