地理学报 ›› 2002, Vol. 57 ›› Issue (4): 389-396.doi: 10.11821/xb200204002

• 生态系统 • 上一篇    下一篇

西苕溪流域不同土地类型下氮元素输移过程

梁涛1, 张秀梅1, 章申1, 于兴修2, 王浩3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京100101;
    2. 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所, 南京210008;
    3. 北京师范大学环境科学研究所, 北京100875
  • 收稿日期:2002-02-21 修回日期:2002-04-08 出版日期:2002-07-25 发布日期:2010-09-06
  • 作者简介:梁涛 (1970- ), 男, 博士后, 副研究员。主要从事水环境生物地球化学研究工作,已在国内外中英文核心期刊发表论文30余篇。E-mail: liangt@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    中国科学院知识创新工程项目 (KZCX2-310-04-01) 和国家重点基础研究发展规划项目 (G1999045710)。

Nitrogen Elements Transferring Processes and Fluxes under Different Land Use in West Tiaoxi Catchment

LIANG Tao1, ZHANG Xiumei1, ZHANG Shen1, YU Xingxiu2, WANG Hao3   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Institute of Geography and Limnology, CAS, Nanjing 210008, China;
    3. Institute of Resources Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
  • Received:2002-02-21 Revised:2002-04-08 Online:2002-07-25 Published:2010-09-06
  • Supported by:

    Knowledge Innovation Project of CAS, No. KZCX2-310-04-01; the National Key Basic Research Project of China, No. G1999045710

摘要:

以西苕溪流域为研究对象,选择最有代表性的5种土地类型,模拟天然大暴雨,通过3次重复实验研究不同形态氮素随暴雨径流及径流沉积物的迁移过程,估算氮素在流域内不同土地利用/土地覆被条件下的损失率。研究结果表明,在相同的降雨条件下,氮素的流失速率和流失量随土地利用/土地覆被类型的不同表现出明显差异,地表径流水相总氮的流失量桑林最大,水田最小。水相不同形态的氮素流失量亦有所不同,悬浮颗粒态氮占地表径流水相总氮的70 %~90 %,水相溶解态氮的流失量以松林为最高,竹林、桑林和水田接近而且较低,不同类型的水相溶解态氮也随土地利用类型的不同表现出各自的特征。各土地类型单位面积、表层10 cm土壤氮素流失高达4.66~9.40 gm-2,其中随径流沉积物相迁移的氮素占绝大部分(90 % 以上)。估算出的各土地利用类型总氮流失速率,地表径流水相为2.68~14.48 mgm-2min-1,径流沉积物相高达100.01~172.67 mgm-2min-1

关键词: 土地利用类型, 暴雨径流, 氮素流失, 人工降雨, 西苕溪流域

Abstract:

As the main topic of global environmental change, researches on land use/land cover change (LUCC) have been extensively carried out. Effects of land use/land cover changes on regional ecological environment were one of the top concerns recently. By affecting regional material cycling and energy flows, LUCC has great impact on regional climate, soil, rainfall, and water quality. The study of the influences of LUCC on regional environment, especially on process and flux of nutrient elements and heavy metals in catchment scale, is significant to raise and draw up land use polices in accordance with sustainable development strategies. In this study, five typical land covers in West Tiaoxi catchment were studied on nitrogen loss in artificial rainstorm runoff. Triple duplication experiments have been carried out under the artificial rain condition with an intensity of 2 mmin-1 and lasting 32 minutes in a 3 m2 field. Transportation and flux of various species of nitrogen in runoff and sediment were investigated. The results show that nitrogen loss amount and rate are quite different among five kinds of land covers. The loss of total nitrogen in runoff of mulberry is the largest and that of paddy field is the smallest. Particle nitrogen accounts for 70%~90% of total nitrogen in runoff of various kinds of land covers. Loss of dissolved nitrogen in pine trees is much higher than the other kinds of land covers, which are similar among them. More detailed species of dissolved nitrogen show their respective features among various land covers. Total amounts of nitrogen loss from top 10 cm layer of 5 kinds of soils are estimated as high as 4.66-9.40 gm-2, of which nitrogen loss through sediment of runoff accounts for more than 90%. The rate of total nitrogen loss ranges in 2.68-14.48 mgm-2min-1 in runoff, which is much lower than that of 100.01-172.67 mgm-2min-1 in sediment of runoff.

Key words: land use and land cover change, surface runoff, nitrogen loss, artificial rainstorm