地理学报 ›› 2006, Vol. 61 ›› Issue (2): 190-198.doi: 10.11821/xb200602008

• 区域经济 • 上一篇    下一篇

21世纪初中国主要余粮区的空间格局特征

殷培红1, 方修琦1, 田青1, 马玉玲2   

  1. 1. 北京师范大学地理与遥感科学学院, 北京100875;
    2. 国家减灾中心灾害信息部, 北京100053
  • 收稿日期:2005-08-29 修回日期:2005-11-16 出版日期:2006-02-25 发布日期:2006-02-25
  • 作者简介:殷培红 (1968-), 女, 北京人, 博士生, 主要从事环境演变与资源、环境管理研究。E-mail: yinpeihong@sina.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40271115); 中国科学院知识创新项目(KZCX3-SW-321)

Distribution and Regional Difference of Main Output Regions in Grain Production in China in the Early 21st Century

YIN Peihong1, FANG Xiuqi1, TIAN Qing1, MA Yuling2   

  1. 1. School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China;
    2. National Disaster Reduction Center of China, Beijing 100053, China
  • Received:2005-08-29 Revised:2005-11-16 Online:2006-02-25 Published:2006-02-25
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40271115; Knowledge Innovation Project of CAS, No.KZCX3 -SW-321

摘要:

利用2000~2003年分县统计数据,以人均占有量为指标,重点研究21世纪初中国粮食主产区的空间格局及区域差异。研究结果表明:20世纪90年代后期以来,中国粮食生产重心进一步北移,同时出现“西扩”趋势。目前,20世纪90年代后期国家确立的粮食生产大县中近1/3人均粮食占有量已不足400kg,多分布在南方。全国3/4左右的余粮集中出产在东北地区、华北平原中南部地区、西部干旱、半干旱地区;2/3的余粮地区位于环境变化敏感地区,粮食产量波动大。这些地区的粮食丰歉直接影响到全国粮食市场价格的波动,中国粮食安全自然风险增大。加强上述地区的环境变化及粮食安全的自然风险研究,提高适应环境变化能力势在必行。

关键词: 粮食, 余粮区, 空间格局, 区域差异, 中国

Abstract:

Based on counties' statistic data in 2000-2003, this paper reveals new regional distribution and difference of main grain-output regions in China. For further understanding regional characteristics and natural risk of grain production, this analysis adopted four indices of the proportion of grain-sown area, the proportion of cultivated land, grain yield per gain-sown area and population density to group the main grain-output regions into six types by k-means Cluster in SPSS11.0, and presented these results respectively in four geographical regions, namely, the Northeast China, the North China Plain, the oases in western China and the southern China. This study shows that the main grain-producing areas have shifted from the south to the north of China, and added newly in western China since the late 1990s. There was an obvious disparity among the bases of commercial grain production in the late 1990s. The per capita grain in about 1/3 China's main grain-producing counties that were designated by the Chinese government is below 400 kg; and most of these areas are located in southern China. At present, the surplus grain produced by the main grain-producing counties in Northeast China (including the eastern Inner Mongolia) is about 34.7% of the surplus grain of the whole country. The proportion of the surplus grain production in the main grain-producing counties in the south is very low. The surplus grain produced by the 43 main grain-producing counties of Hunan and Jiangxi provinces is only 5.2% of the whole country. The surplus grain produced by the 24 main grain-producing counties in Sichuan Province and Chongqing Municipality is less than that by the 25 main grain-producing counties in Hebei Province. It is obvious that the distribution of the main grain-producing counties has changed in China in the early 21st century. In the 21st century, Northeast China, the middle-south of North China, and arid and semi-arid region of Northwest China produced 3/4 of surplus grains. The surplus grain in Northeast China produces about 42.1% the surplus grain of the whole country, and ranks first distinctly, followed by the North China Plain that produces about 28.4% of surplus grain. Most of these areas are located in the regions sensitive to environmental changes. It is necessary to strengthen the study on environmental changes and natural risk of China's food security in the main grain output regions.

Key words: grain production, main grain-output region, regional pattern, regional difference, China