地理学报 ›› 2006, Vol. 61 ›› Issue (4): 414-424.doi: 10.11821/xb200604008

• 区域经济 • 上一篇    下一篇

发展中地区银行业空间系统变化——以河南省为例

李小建1,2, 周雄飞2, 卫春江2, 孔云峰1   

  1. 1. 河南大学环境与规划学院, 开封 475001; 2河南财经学院, 郑州 450002
  • 收稿日期:2005-09-26 修回日期:2005-12-23 出版日期:2006-04-25 发布日期:2010-09-06
  • 作者简介:李小建 (1954-), 男, 河南孟津人, 教授, 博士生导师, 中国地理学会会员。主要研究方向经济地理学。E-mail: xjli@henu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目 (40271038); 国家自然科学基金重点项目 (40535025)

Locational Changes of Banking Services in the Less Developed Region of China since 1980: The Case of Henan Province

LI Xiaojian1,2, ZHOU Xiongfei2, WEI Chunjiang2, KONG Yunfeng1   

  1. 1. College of Environment and Planning, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001, China;
    2. Henan University of Finance and Economics, Zhengzhou 450002, China
  • Received:2005-09-26 Revised:2005-12-23 Online:2006-04-25 Published:2010-09-06
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40271038; No.4053502

摘要:

基于对中国发展中地区的河南省的第一手调查数据,对经济水平较低、受外部影响较小但增长迅速的内陆省份银行业空间系统变化进行了量化分析和解释。结果表明,与国际上发达国家相同,中国发展中地区的国有银行业逐步向中心城市集中。其中,作为区域中心的地级城市的地位上升最为突出。其形成原因主要与制度变化有关;而区域经济的发展差异,又是促进该趋势的直接诱因。这一观点通过混合OLS模型模拟得到证明。城市内部的银行业区位变化,具有一些与发达国家的不同之处。区域经济快速发展带来了中心城市的迅速拓展。同时经济结构调整,又带来了城市内不同地区经济发展水平的变化。由此形成了银行业区位的不断扩散,新兴快速增长的地区,迅速吸引了一批银行的建立。对郑州市58家银行网点的调查表明,在1978年之前,银行网点设立十分遵循计划体制的安排;而在1979年以后,邻近地段“人均收入水平高:决定着相当一部分银行网点的布局。这从微观角度佐证了河南省的分析结论。金融系统的集中格局,为非中心地区经济发展带来的不利影响,应该给予关注。

关键词: 欠发达地区, 银行业空间系统, 金融地理, 河南省

Abstract:

Geography of finance has attracted great attention of geographers and other relevant scholars since the 1990s. The literature indicates that the investigation on changes of locations and spatial systems of banking services is one of the main themes. Results based on developed countries have found the tendency of centralization in the spatial systems both in international and sub-national scales. Globalization, deregulation, and technological change have been the main factors accounting for the changes. As compared to the developed economies, less developed region in China has been developing with different backgrounds. In addition to the relatively slowing-down globalization, its economy stays at the lower level but the growth is fast. The impact of technology is increasing but not practically strong. Henan as China's largest province serves as a typical case as its per capita GDP is lower than the national average; its annual growth rate has been among the national top five in the past five years. By using survey data from Henan Province, this paper found the similar centralization of the locations of banking services. More services have been shifted from counties to central cities, particularly the regional cities attracting more services. Many factors may explain these changes. Institutional changes, however, play a significant role. Banks were quasi-government authorities before 1978. Their organization was closely linked with hierarchy of government structure. Since China's reform and establishment of market-oriented economy, banks have been gradually operating as firms. Economic growth and its consequent requirement for banking services become the main factors determining bank locations. The particular importance of institutional factor in spatial systems of banking services can be proved at high significant levels in pooled OLS stimulation models. The questionnaire interviews of 58 bank offices further support the findings from the quantitative analysis. Locations of bank offices in Zhengzhou, the capital city of Henan Province, indicated a spreading coverage along the urban expansion. "Higher income level" was evaluated by the sampling offices as a most important factor in the formation of bank networks since 1979. Therefore, in the areas with increasing number of fast growth companies, as well as the residential areas with rich class, concentration of banking services has been very evident. Spatial restructuring of banking services provides convenience for prosperous areas, notwithstanding, the peripheries outside the central areas may suffer from disadvantage in banking services. Attention should be given to its research.

Key words: less developed areas, spatial systems in banking service, financial geography, Henan Province