地理学报 ›› 2003, Vol. 58 ›› Issue (2): 255-262.doi: 10.11821/xb200302013

• 河流环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

社会经济系统水循环研究进展

贾绍凤,王国,夏军,于贵瑞,张士锋,王金霞   

  1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2002-10-04 修回日期:2003-01-22 出版日期:2003-03-25 发布日期:2003-03-25
  • 作者简介:贾绍凤 (1964- ), 男, 博士。E-mail: jiasf@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    中国科学院项目(KZCX1-10-03, KZCX2-317); 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所知识创新项目(CXIOG-B00-04, CXIOG-E01-08-01); 国家重大基础研究发展规划项目(1999043601, 1999043602)

Research Progress in Socio-economic Water Cycle

JIA Shaofeng, WANG Guo, XIA Jun, YU Guirui, ZHANG Shifeng, WANG Jinxia   

  1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2002-10-04 Revised:2003-01-22 Online:2003-03-25 Published:2003-03-25
  • Supported by:

    Projects of CAS, No.KZCX1-10-03, No.KZCX2-317; Knowledge Innovation Projects of IGSNRR, CAS, No.CXIOG-B00-04, No.CXIOG-E01-08-01; National Basic Research Development Programme, No.1999043601, No.1999043602

摘要:

水循环包括自然水循环和社会经济水循环两个方面。社会经济系统水循环指社会经济系统对水资源的开发利用及各种人类活动对水循环的影响。对目前国际国内关于社会经济水循环关注的主要问题 (水资源安全、水资源社会经济研究、人类活动对水循环的影响、水环境、水资源可持续管理和综合管理) 及其进展进行了评述。水资源安全的主要对策已由增加供给转变为水资源需求管理。增加社会参与和明晰水权是水资源管理体制改革的方向。水价在水资源管理中的重要作用得到越来越多的重视。水资源可持续管理和综合管理正逐步落实。水资源需求管理机制、水权水价等水资源管理制度设计、作为可持续水资源管理基础的生态需水问题和环境变化对水资源的影响,将是未来社会经济系统水循环研究的焦点。

关键词: 水循环, 社会经济系统, 水资源

Abstract:

Socio-economic water cycle means water cycle driven by human activity and contrast with natural water cycle driven by natural factors. The backgrounds of putting forward the research of socio-economic water cycle are becoming more and more serious because of water scarcity and human impact on water cycle. The main domains of research of socio-economic water cycle include water security appraisement, sustainable and integrated management of water resource, socio-economic studies of water resources, human impact on water cycle, water environment and water-ecology interaction etc. This paper reviewed international research progress of socio-economic water cycle which had a focus on China. China has completed national water resources and medium to long term water supply planning. She has been engaging in study on water-deficient regions in North China and Northwest China for about half a century. For solving water shortage problem in northern China, she has put forward the famous South-to-North Water Transferring Project, which has been set as one of the four key national projects in the Tenth Five-Year Plan period although there are still debates. For promoting water use efficiency, China has been reforming her water management system, including water right system and water price system. There has already been a case of water right purchase. China has also conducted a lot of research on the interaction between human activity, water and ecosystem. For meeting the need of sustainability and coordinating water resources development and environmental protection, the study of ecological water requirement became very hot in recent years. There are three focuses of socio-economic water cycle study now in China: water transfer project from the south to the north, water resources management and ecological water requirement.

Key words: water cycle, socio-economic system, water resources