地理学报 ›› 2007, Vol. 62 ›› Issue (4): 427-436.doi: 10.11821/xb200704009

• 土地利用 • 上一篇    下一篇

土地利用/土地覆被时空分布100 年数字重建 ———以大庆市杜尔伯特蒙古族自治县为例

白淑英1, 张树文2, 张养贞2   

  1. 1. 南京信息工程大学遥感学院,南京210044;
    2. 中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所,长春130012
  • 收稿日期:2006-09-28 修回日期:2006-12-22 出版日期:2007-04-25 发布日期:2007-04-25
  • 作者简介:白淑英(1973-), 女, 蒙古族, 内蒙古人, 博士, 研究方向为遥感与地理信息系统在资源环境中的应用研究。 E-mail: baishu-ying@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    南京信息工程大学科研基金项目(QD44)

Digital Rebuilding of LUCC Spatial-temporal Distribution of the Last 100 Years: Taking Dorbod Mongolian Autonomous County in Daqing City as an Example

BAI Shuying1, ZHANG Shuwen2, ZHANG Yangzhen2   

  1. 1. College of Remote Sensing, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044, China;
    2. Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, CAS, Changchun 130012, China
  • Received:2006-09-28 Revised:2006-12-22 Online:2007-04-25 Published:2007-04-25
  • Supported by:

    Supported by scientific research fund of Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, No.QD44

摘要:

长时间序列的土地利用/ 土地覆被数据是开展全球变化、可持续发展及生态安全等各项研究的重要基础。然而,早期的土地利用/ 土地覆被数据,特别是卫星遥感数据出现之前 的土地利用/ 土地覆被信息通常很难获取。利用TM、MSS 遥感影像数据和地形图、气候、地质、地貌、土壤、植被、水文等自然环境背景图件以及数据,社会经济统计数据等多源数 据,选择大庆市杜尔伯特蒙古族自治县作为典型案例区,在GIS 技术支持下建立了土地利用/ 土地覆被数字重建模型,再现了典型研究区20 世纪30 年代和50 年代土地利用/ 土地覆被空间分布状况。通过野外调查和历史文献资料对土地利用数字重建结果进行精度评价并初步得到以下结论:① 采用逐个图斑跟踪记录的方法对研究区各个时期土地利用/ 覆被变化的敏感 性进行分析,有利于揭示区域土地利用/ 土地覆被变化的规律;② 在定量、定位分析环境背景对土地利用/ 土地覆被分布及其变化的影响基础上,综合判断各种土地利用/ 土地覆被分布概率,其结果可为土地利用数字重建提供依据;③ 对1:10 万地形图提取土地利用信息的可行性与可信度分析表明,地形图中土地利用信息完全能够达到一级土地利用分类精度,同时疏林地、灌木林、沼泽地、盐碱地、沙地等二级分类信息也能获取。

关键词: 土地利用, 土地覆被, 历史时期, 数字重建, 大庆

Abstract:

The Yangtze River Delta is one of the economically developed coastal areas. From the late 1970s, its urbanization process has been quickened greatly, which resulted in the number increase and the spatial expansion of urban areas. The Landsat MSS, TM/ETM satellite images, which were respectively acquired in 5 periods of 1979, 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005, were used to extract urban land information and analyze urban growth data with the help of remote sensing and GIS softwares. We analyzed the spatio-temporal characteristics including urban growth speed, growth intensity, fractal dimension and urban growth pattern. Additionally, dynamics of urban expansion in the Yangtze River Delta were also analyzed. The results are drawn as follows: (1) From 1979 to 2005, the growth speed of urbanization area was accelerating obviously. The quantities of increasing area of urbanized land were 37.66 km2, 112.43 km2, 274.86 km2 and 421.73 km2 in the past four periods (1979-1990, 1990-1995, 1995-2000 and 2000-2005), respectively. Meanwhlie, the growth intensities of urbanized land enhanced gradually. From 1979 to 1990, the growth intensity was only 0.03, then reaching 0.10, 0.24 and 0.37 in the following three periods. (2) The spatial structure of urbanization area in the Yangtze River Delta was fractal. The fractal dimension and stability coefficient of urbanized land structure fluctuated to a certain extent. From 1979 to 2000, the fractal dimension of urbanized land structure decreased yearly. The shape of urbanized land tended to be regular. After 2000, the area increase of urbanized land on a large scale led to more complicated shape of urbanized land. The stability coefficient also had similar characteristics to that of fractal dimension. So the change of urbanized land in spatial structure was relating to the growth process of urbanized land. (3) The growth process of urban agglomeration in the Yangtze River Delta was from one pole and two belts to five poles and five belts. From 1979 to 1990, Shanghai was the only first-grade growth pole of urbanized land and Shanghai-Nanjing railway and Shanghai-Hangzhou railway were the two first-grade growth belts of urbanized land in the Yangtze River Delta. At the latest period (from 2000 to 2005), the first-grade growth poles included 5 cities, i.e., Shanghai, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Suzhou and Ningbo. Besides Shanghai-Nanjing railway and Shanghai-Hangzhou railway, Shanghai-Jingjiang railway, Hangzhou-Ningbo railway and the highway linking Nanjing to Gaochun also became growth belts of urbanized land in the Yangtze River Delta in that period.

Key words: LUCC, historical period, digital rebuilding, relief map, Daqing