地理学报 ›› 2007, Vol. 62 ›› Issue (4): 387-396.doi: 10.11821/xb200704005

• 人文地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

北京住宅郊区化与就业空间错位

宋金平1, 王恩儒2, 张文新1, 彭萍1   

  1. 1. 北京师范大学地理学与遥感科学学院,北京100875;
    2. Department of Geography, University of North Dakota Grand Forks, ND 58202, USA
  • 收稿日期:2006-07-12 修回日期:2007-01-08 出版日期:2007-04-25 发布日期:2010-08-04
  • 作者简介:宋金平(1968-),男,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为城市与区域发展。E-mail: jinpingsong@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40571040)

Housing Suburbanization and Employment Spatial Mismatch in Beijing

SONG Jinping1, WANG Enru2, ZHANG Wenxin1, PENG Ping1   

  1. 1. Department of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China;
    2. Department of Geography, University of North Dakota Grand Forks, ND 58202, USA
  • Received:2006-07-12 Revised:2007-01-08 Online:2007-04-25 Published:2010-08-04
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40571040

摘要:

北京从20 世纪80 年代末开始出现郊区化,其住宅郊区化特点尤为突出。北京市住宅郊区化的驱动力与西方城市的郊区化相比既有相似之处又有明显差异,相似之处是:都是城市化水平不断提高与社会进步的必然结果,以及土地有偿使用制度的实施和城市规划的引导; 不同之处在于北京的住宅郊区化是一种被动的郊区化,居民本身并不想离开市区,但是旧城改造与市区内高昂的房价迫使居民不得不到郊区购房。随着住宅郊区化的大规模发展,北京也出现了居住与就业的空间错位问题,这种空间错位虽然与美国郊区化过程中空间错位有许多不同之处,但在本质上是一致的,都是出现居住与就业的空间分离,造成低收入阶层通勤的时间成本与经济成本增加,导致交通拥挤、社会隔离等社会问题。

关键词: 住宅郊区化, 就业, 空间错位, 北京

Abstract:

Along with the social economic development, urbanization has speeded up in China. Suburbanization has been taking place in large and super-large cities. In Beijing, suburbanization (mainly led by housing suburbanization) started from the late 1980s and early 1990s. By now suburbanization in Beijing has experienced three stages: beginning, inner suburbanization and rapid development. Housing suburbanization has been characterized by concentric outward expansion along ring roads, leading to rapid urban sprawl. But urban sprawl in Beijing differs from low-density sprawl in Western countries. New housings are mainly located along arterial roads. Distinct regional variations exist in housing types, showing some similarities to housing segregation in Western cities. This paper argues that housing suburbanization in Beijing and that in Western cities share both similarities and differences. Suburbanization in both settings is a necessary result of improving urbanization and establishment of an urban land market, and guided by urban planning. In Beijing, however, housing suburbanization is "passive" suburbanization, as most residents do not really want to leave the central areas but urban renewal and extremely high housing prices force them to purchase housing in suburban areas. Along with housing suburbanization, the issue of spatial mismatch between housing and employment has emerged in Beijing. Despite all the differences, this spatial mismatch shares similarities to that in American cities in several aspects: spatial separation of residences from jobs, social segregation, leading to increasing costs (in terms of both time and money) for low-income commuters and many social problems such as traffic congestion and social segregation.

Key words: housing suburbanization, employment, spatial mismatch