地理学报 ›› 2007, Vol. 62 ›› Issue (10): 1073-1082.doi: 10.11821/xb200710007

• 人文地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国地形起伏度及其与人口分布的相关性

封志明, 唐焰, 杨艳昭, 张丹   

  1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京100101
  • 收稿日期:2006-11-20 修回日期:2007-06-26 出版日期:2007-10-25 发布日期:2010-08-04
  • 作者简介:封志明(1963-), 男, 研究员, 博士生导师, 中国地理学会会员, 主要研究方向农业资源高效利用与区域可持续 发展研究, 旁及资源科学的理论探讨。E-mail: fengzm@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目(KZCX3-SW-333)

The Relief Degree of Land Surface in China and Its Correlation with Population Distribution

FENG Zhiming, TANG Yan, YANG Yanzhao, ZHANG Dan   

  1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2006-11-20 Revised:2007-06-26 Online:2007-10-25 Published:2010-08-04
  • Supported by:

    Knowledge Innovation Program of CAS, No.KZCX3-SW-333

摘要:

基于人居环境自然评价的需要, 运用GIS 技术, 采用窗口分析等方法, 提取了基于栅 格尺度(10 km×10 km) 的中国地形起伏度, 并从比例结构、空间分布和高度特征3 个方面系 统分析了中国地形起伏度的分布规律及其与人口分布的相关性。研究表明: 中国的地形起伏度以低值为主, 63%的区域低于1 (相对高差≤500 m); 空间分布呈现西高东低、南高北低的格局; 随着经度和纬度增高, 地形起伏度呈逐渐下降趋势, 28oN、35oN、42oN 纬线和85oE、102oE、115oE 经线上的地形起伏度符合中国三大阶梯的地貌特征; 随着海拔高度增加, 地形 起伏度呈现逐渐升高趋势。实证分析表明: 中国的地形起伏度与人口密度有较好的对数拟合关系, 拟合度高达0.91; 全国85%以上的人口居住在地形起伏度小于1 的地区, 在地形起伏度大于3 的地区居住的人口总数只占全国0.57%。中国地形起伏度与人口分布的相关性区域差异显著, 东北、华北、华中和华南等地相关性显著, 内蒙古与青藏地区几乎不存在相关性。

关键词: 地形起伏度, 人口分布, GIS, 中国

Abstract:

The relief degree of land surface (RDLS) is an important factor in describing the landform macroscopically. Under the new proposed concept, based on the macro-scale digital elevation model data, by using ARC/INFO software, the RDLS of 10km×10km grid size is extracted and mapped in China. Then this paper systemically depicts the distribution rules of RDLS in China and its correlation with population distribution by analyzing the ratio structure, spatial distribution and altitudinal characteristics of the RDLS. The distribution rule is elaborately expatiated in three separate ways: the ratio structure, the accumulative frequency, and the change along with the longitude and latitude, which clearly reflects the regional topographic framework of China. The result shows that the majority of the RDLS is low in China, for more than 63% of the area in China with the RDLS lower than 1 (relative altitude ≤ 500 m). As for the spatial distribution, in general, the RDLS of the west is higher than that of the east and so is the south than the north. Specifically, the Hengduan Mountains and the Tianshan Mountains regions have the highest RDLS, while the Northeast China Plain, the North China Plain and the Tarim Basin have the lowest ones. The RDLS of 28oN, 35ooN and 42oN as well as of 85oE, 102oE and 115oE accords well with the three topographic steps in China. The RDLS of China decreases with the increase of longitude and the change clearly illustrates the landform characteristics that most of the mountains are located in the west and most plains in the east of China. The RDLS of China decreases with the increase of latitude as well and the trend shows that there are more mountains and hills in South China and more plains and plateaus in North China. In the vertical direction, the ratio of high RDLS increases with the increase of altitude. Finally, this paper analyzes the correlation between the RDLS and population distribution in China and the result shows that the RDLS is an important factor affecting the distribution of population and most people in China live in low RDLS areas. To be more specifically, where the RDLS is zero, the population amounts for 0.83% of the total; where the RDLS is less than 1 (relative altitude ≤ 500 m), the population reaches 20.83%; where the RDLS is less than 2, the population amounts for 97.58% of the total; and where the RDLS is bigger than 3, the population only amounts for 0.57%. That is to say, more than 85% of the population in China lives in areas where the RDLS is less than 1 and less than 1% of the population lives in areas where the RDLS is bigger than 3. The correlations between the RDLS and population distribution of eight regions in China are different. The correlation is obvious in northeast, north, central and south China, while it is nearly nonexistent in Inner Mongolia and the Qinghai-Tibet region.

Key words: relief degree of land surface (RDLS), population distribution, GIS, China