地理学报 ›› 2004, Vol. 59 ›› Issue (3): 409-417.doi: 10.11821/xb200403011

• 土地利用 • 上一篇    下一篇

20世纪90年代新疆草地资源的空间格局演变

侯西勇,庄大方,于信芳   

  1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2003-09-20 修回日期:2003-11-11 出版日期:2004-05-25 发布日期:2010-09-09
  • 作者简介:侯西勇 (1976-), 男, 山东泰安人, 博士研究生。主要从事地理信息系统应用、土地利用/土地覆被变化的研究。E-mail: houxy@lreis.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金资助项目 (90202002);中国科学院知识创新工程重大项目 (KZCX-2-308)

Grassland Change and Its Spatial Patterns in Xinjiang in 1990s

HOU Xiyong, ZHUANG Dafang, YU Xinfang   

  1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2003-09-20 Revised:2003-11-11 Online:2004-05-25 Published:2010-09-09
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.90202002; Knowledge Innovation Project of CAS, No.KZCX-2-308

摘要:

以Landsat TM遥感影像解译出的新疆1990年和2000年1:10万土地利用数据为基础,探讨了近10年来草地资源的动态变化及其空间格局特征。两期矢量数据叠加,得到耕地、林地、草地、水域、建设用地和未利用土地的面积变化数据、土地利用类型动态度和土地利用变化转移概率矩阵,从而系统地分析了草地与其他土地利用类型之间以及高、中、低不同覆盖度草地亚类之间的动态变化。在归纳草地资源各种变化情况的基础上,构建无任何分类面积信息损失的ARC/INFO-Grid格网化数据集,从而讨论了草地资源动态变化的空间格局特征。研究表明,近10年来草地与未利用土地之间为近似等量交换,与其他土地利用类型之间的转换则是显著的入不敷出,因此草地大量减少,但是草地总体质量的提高在很大程度上弥补了其总量减少的不利影响。草地数量的转入与转出及质量的提高与恶化在时间上同步发生,在空间上则交错进行并形成复杂的空间格局。草地资源的动态变化总体上具有比较突出的区域差异性,可以划分出5个基本动态变化分区。

关键词: 遥感和GIS;草地资源;土地利用变化;空间格局;新疆

Abstract:

Based on GIS techniques and land-use data of Xinjiang in 1990 and 2000, which were interpreted by Landsat TM remote sensing images, the grassland changes were studied carefully. First, the vector format data of the two phases were overlaid and areas of land-use changes were summarized. Then, land-use dynamic degree and transition matrix of the land-use change were calculated, and the grassland quantity changes, i.e. changes between grassland and the other land-use types, as well as its quality changes, i.e. changes among dense-grass, moderate-grass and sparse-grass, were detected clearly. Next, the ARC/INFO-Grid format data set of grassland change was built on the basis of the integrated grassland change information. This data set has perfectly supported the spatial pattern analysis of grassland dynamic change. It was proved that, in the past decade, conversion between grassland and unused land was in equilibrium. However, the total amount of grassland was greatly reduced due to cultivation, afforestation etc. At the same time, a great deal of moderate-grass and sparse-grass changed into dense-grass, which alleviated the impacts caused by the grassland total amount reduction.

Key words: RS&GIS, grassland, land-use change, spatial pattern, Xinjiang