地理学报 ›› 2008, Vol. 63 ›› Issue (5): 514-523.doi: 10.11821/xb200805007

• 水土流失 • 上一篇    下一篇

洞庭湖区的泥沙淤积效应

李景保1, 尹辉1, 卢承志2, 毛德华1, 周和平1   

  1. 1. 湖南师范大学资源与环境科学学院, 长沙410081;
    2. 湖南水利水电勘测设计研究总院, 长沙410007
  • 收稿日期:2007-12-07 修回日期:2008-01-27 出版日期:2008-05-26 发布日期:2010-08-03
  • 作者简介:李景保, 男, (1951-), 教授, 主要从事水文学与水资源及自然灾害研究。E-mail: lijingbao1951@126.com
  • 基金资助:

    湖南省自然地理学重点学科项目; 湖南省科技计划项目(2007FG302)

Impact of Sedimentation on Dongting Lake

LI Jingbao1, YIN Hui1, LU Chengzhi2, MAO Dehua1, ZHOU Heping1   

  1. 1. College of Resources and Environment Science, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, China;
    2. Hunan Hydro & Power Design Institute, Changsha 410007, China
  • Received:2007-12-07 Revised:2008-01-27 Online:2008-05-26 Published:2010-08-03
  • Supported by:

    The Key Discipline Building Program on Physical Geography of Hunan Province; Project for Science & Technology of Hunan Province, No.2007FG302

摘要:

以1951-2005 年长系列实测泥沙等资料为依据, 从泥沙淤积特性与资源环境之间的关系上, 探讨了洞庭湖区的泥沙淤积效应。研究表明: 由于洞庭湖区始终处于淤积状态, 加之人类活动影响, 导致了泥沙淤积循环演进的格局, 以至于使泥沙的灾害性效应与资源性效应 均在湖区得到充分的显示。主要表现在: ① 塑造了水体滩地、泥沙滩地、湖草滩地、芦苇滩地等类型滩地, 构成了湖泊巨系统的主体; ② 孕育或诱发了泥沙淤积→洲滩扩展、围垦→调洪功能下降、鱼类资源枯竭、生物多样性减少灾害链: 泥沙淤积→洲滩扩展→洪涝、水质污染; 泥沙淤积→植被洲滩浮涨→血吸虫病、害鼠致害灾害链; 泥沙淤积→洪溃决堤→土地沙 化灾害链。这些淤积型泥沙灾害链给湖区直接或间接地造成巨大的经济损失。③ 近55 年间, 泥沙塑造土地约98.13×108hm2, 人类合理开发利用洲滩资源获得了巨大的经济效益, 就地挖沙加高防洪大堤2~3 m, 累积土石方约55×108 m3, 节省了购买大量原材料的开支。

关键词: 泥沙淤积, 湖泊滩地, 泥沙灾害链, 洞庭湖

Abstract:

According to a long series of measured sediment data, the sedimentation effects of Dongting Lake were studied in light of the relationship between sedimentation characteristics and the resources & environment. The result shows that the long-term deposition and the impact of human activities has led to a cycle of the evolution of sedimentation pattern, resulting in sediment disaster effects and resources effects in Dongting Lake. The main features are as follows: 1) The water beach, silt beach, lake marsh beach, reed beach and other types of beach shaped by sedimentation effects, constitute the main body of the giant lake system. 2) The disaster chains are induced, i.e. sedimentation → marshland expansion & reclamation → flood function decline, the fish resource depletion, biodiversity reduction disaster chain, sedimentation → marshland expansion → floods, water pollution disaster chain, sedimentation → marshland floating vegetation rising → schistosomiasis, rodents virulence disaster chain, sedimentation → flood embankment bursting → land desertification disaster chain. 3) Sedimentation has created about 98.13 ×104 hm2 of land in the past 55 years. Rational development and utilization of marshland resources have produced tremendous economic benefits.

Key words: sediment, lake beach, sediment disaster chain, sand resources