地理学报 ›› 2009, Vol. 64 ›› Issue (1): 33-42.doi: 10.11821/xb200901004

• 环境变迁 • 上一篇    下一篇

东亚沿海山地末次冰期冰川与环境

张威1, 闫玲1, 崔之久2, 杨建强2   

  1. 1. 辽宁师范大学城市与环境学院,大连116029;
    2. 北京大学城市与环境学院,北京100871
  • 收稿日期:2008-08-09 修回日期:2008-11-05 出版日期:2009-01-25 发布日期:2010-08-03
  • 作者简介:张威,男,吉林松源人,教授,博士,主要从事环境与灾害地貌研究。E-mail: zhang_w@pku.org.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40571016)

Glacial Environment during the Last Glacial Cycle in the Mountains of East Asia

ZHANG Wei1, YAN Ling1, CUI Zhijiu2, YANG Jianqiang2   

  1. 1. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences,Liaoning Normal University,Dalian 116029,China;
    2. Department of Geography,Peking University,Beijing 100871,China
  • Received:2008-08-09 Revised:2008-11-05 Online:2009-01-25 Published:2010-08-03
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40571016

摘要:

对东亚沿海山地末次冰期冰川发育的气候条件、构造背景、冰进时序、发育规模等研究表明, 台湾山地保存着3 期冰川作用遗迹, 冰川的最大前进规模发生在MIS3b 阶段, 其规模大于MIS2 阶段; 日本山地冰期系列齐全, 包含了末次冰期的早(MIS4)、中(MIS3)、晚 (MIS2) 3 个阶段的冰进, 其规模是MIS4/3 阶段大于MIS2 阶段; 而长白山存在2 期冰川作用的遗迹, 即末次冰盛期(MIS2) 和晚冰期。在相似的冬雨(雪) 型季风影响区, 冰川发育的时序与规模也有一定不同, 反映出在大气候背景下的区域性差异, 在东亚季风影响范围内, 末次冰期的环流变化在各地也很不一致。最新推算的现代理论雪线自北(日本) 向南(台湾) 依次递增, 范围是2750~4245 m, 除日本北部的高纬地区雪线降低值400 m 之外, 末次冰盛期(LGM) 的雪线降低值在800~1300 m 之间, 平均值1000 m 左右。东亚沿海山地冰川发育与新构造运动密切相关, 更新世山体的快速抬升为冰川发育的内因, 如台湾山地在末次冰期的MIS3b 阶段, 山体的抬升量约为250 m, 对山体的高度和雪线变化有很大影响。

关键词: 东亚山地, 末次冰期, 冰川环境, 构造背景

Abstract:

Evidence from all over the world shows that the timing of mountain glacier maxima advances varied widely. Studies on the climatic conditions, tectonic background, glacial sequences and glacier extents show that they are different from region to region. Three glacial remains are preserved in Taiwanese mountains including the middle/early stage, last glacial maximum and late-glacial stage glaciers. The glacier extent in MIS3b is larger than MIS2. The glacier geomorphology and landforms are well perserved in Japanese high mountains, such as the MIS2, MIS3 and MIS4 stage glaciers, and the glacial extent in MIS4/3 is larger than that of MIS2. The high mountain range of the Changbai Mountains is unglaciatied at present, but numerous glacial landforms and related sediments around the Tianchi Lake, especially on the northern and western slopes of the volcanic cone, indicated that there was repeated glaciation in these areas during the last glacial cycle. The glacial landforms and deposits in the study area are assigned to the LGM (MIS2) and the Late Glacial. Seasonal and atmospheric cycle differences and different geographic locations caused different conditions of precipitation and temperature. New calculation of the modern theoretical snowline (ELA) and ELA depression during the LGM shows that the ELA is 2750-4245 m from the northernmost Japan to the southernmost Taiwan, and the ELA depression is 800-1300 m with an average value of 1000 m except in the northern part of Japan (only 400 m). The glacial development is obviously affected by the neo-tectonic actions. A 250-m mountain uplift is calculated using the minimum value of uplift rate 5 mm/yr in the Taiwanese mountains during the MIS3b glacier stage.

Key words: last glacial cycle, glacier environment, tectonic uplift, glacial extent, East Asia