地理学报 ›› 2009, Vol. 64 ›› Issue (2): 221-233.doi: 10.11821/xb200902009

• 区域发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

青藏高原东部样带农牧民生计的多样化

阎建忠1,2, 吴莹莹1, 张镱锂2, 周绍宾3, 石玉林2   

  1. 1. 西南大学资源环境学院, 重庆400716;
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京100101;
    3. 重庆师范大学政治与社会学院, 重庆400747
  • 收稿日期:2008-04-09 修回日期:2008-12-18 出版日期:2009-02-25 发布日期:2010-08-03
  • 作者简介:阎建忠(1972-), 男, 重庆忠县人, 副教授, 中国地理学会会员, 从事地理学综合研究。E-mail: yanjz@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40601006; 40471009); 国家重点基础研究发展计划(2005CB42006)

Livelihood Diversification of Peasants and Nomads of Eastern Transect in Tibetan Plateau

YAN Jian-zhong1,2, WU Ying-ying1, ZHANG Yili2, ZHOU Shao-bin3, SHI Yulin2   

  1. 1. College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716, China;
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    3. College of Politics and Social Sciences, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 400747, China
  • Received:2008-04-09 Revised:2008-12-18 Online:2009-02-25 Published:2010-08-03
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40601006; No.40471009; National Basic Research Program ofChina, No.2005CB42006

摘要:

随着草地退化和药材资源减少, 青藏高原东部农牧民的生计受到了严重影响。农牧民 如何利用生计资产实现生计多样化是该区域可持续发展面临的关键问题。实地调查采用PRA 法, 结合调查结果调整了生计资产评估指标, 从样带尺度定量分析了高原东部高山峡谷区、 山原区和高原区农牧民的生计资产现状、生计多样化特点和今后的生计策略。结果表明: ① 生计多样化是农牧民普遍采用的生计策略。高山峡谷区农牧民生计多样化水平较高, 从事二三产业较多, 普遍寻求发展型生计。而随着海拔升高, 农牧民的生计多样化水平降低, 从事 的生计活动类型减少, 发展型生计的比例也降低; ② 海拔较低的高山峡谷区和山原区, 生计 资产总值高, 而海拔越高的高原区, 生计资产总值较低, 主要反映在人力资产和自然资产上; ③ 居民所拥有的生计资产与生计多样化水平高度正相关; ④ 农牧民近期仍基于生计资产改 善生计策略; ⑤ 高山峡谷区和山原区农牧民寻求发展型生计为高原区牧民提供了很好的借 鉴。建议政府围绕生计多样化的制约因素进行投入, 以提高牧民的能力, 协助高原区牧民建立发展型生计。

关键词: 样带, 生计, 生计多样化, 生计资产, 青藏高原

Abstract:

Livelihoods of residents on the Tibetan Plateau are severely affected by grassland and herbal resources degeneration. How to use assets to diversify livelihoods is a key sustainable development issue of this region. Applying PRA, new indexes of livelihood assets and livelihood diversification level being constructed and adjusted by household interview, this paper examines livelihood assets, livelihood diversification level and future livelihood strategies of peasants and nomads in three regions of eastern transect of Tibetan Plateau-high mountain gorge region, mountain plateau region and plateau region. The results show that livelihood diversification is a popular strategy of this area. From high mountain gorge region to mountain plateau region and plateau region, livelihood diversification level is reduced and livelihood activities and the proportion of development oriented livelihood also decrease. Livelihood assets value and livelihood diversification level decreased with the increase of elevation, mainly shown in manpower assets and natural assets. It is highly positively correlative between livelihood assets value and livelihood diversification level. Nowadays, livelihood strategies of local residents still rely on assets they own. Nomads in plateau region should learn much from experiences of development oriented livelihoods of people in high mountain gorge region and mountain plateau region. Therefore, aids of governments should focus on relieving restricted factors of livelihood diversification of nomads and help improve their abilities to build up development oriented livelihoods.

Key words: Tibetan Plateau, transect, livelihood, livelihood diversification, livelihood assets